To construct a confidence interval for a single unknown population mean *μ*, where the population standard deviation is known, we need sample mean as an estimate for *μ* and we need the margin of error. Here, the margin of error (*EBM*) is called the error bound for a population mean (abbreviated *EBM*). The sample mean is the point estimate of the unknown population mean *μ*.

The confidence interval estimate will have the form as follows:

(point estimate - error bound, point estimate + error bound)

The margin of error (*EBM*) depends on the confidence level (abbreviated *CL*). The confidence level is often considered the probability that the calculated confidence interval estimate will contain the true population parameter. However, it is more accurate to state that the confidence level is the percent of confidence intervals that contain the true population parameter when repeated samples are taken. Most often, it is the choice of the person constructing the confidence interval to choose a confidence level of 90% or higher because that person wants to be reasonably certain of his or her conclusions.

There is another probability called alpha (*α*). *α* is related to the confidence level, *CL*. *α* is the probability that the interval does not contain the unknown population parameter.

Mathematically, *α* + *CL* = 1.

A confidence interval for a population mean with a known standard deviation is based on the fact that the sample means follow an approximately normal distribution.

**Steps to Calculate the Confidence Interval:**

To construct a confidence interval estimate for an unknown population mean, we need data from a random sample. The steps to construct and interpret the confidence interval are:

- Calculate the sample mean from the sample data. (Assumption: the population standard deviation
*σ*is known) - Find the
*z*-score that corresponds to the confidence level e.g. 95%. - Calculate the error bound
*EBM*. - Construct the confidence interval.
- Write a sentence that interprets the estimate in the context of the situation in the problem.

*This text is adapted from **Openstax, Introductory Statistics, Section 8.1 A single population mean using the normal distribution**.*

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