Published: January 23rd, 2013
We describe a nanomoulding technique which allows low-cost nanoscale patterning of functional materials, materials stacks and full devices. Nanomoulding can be performed on any nanoimprinting setup and can be applied to a wide range of materials and deposition processes.
We describe a nanomoulding technique which allows low-cost nanoscale patterning of functional materials, materials stacks and full devices. Nanomoulding combined with layer transfer enables the replication of arbitrary surface patterns from a master structure onto the functional material. Nanomoulding can be performed on any nanoimprinting setup and can be applied to a wide range of materials and deposition processes. In particular we demonstrate the fabrication of patterned transparent zinc oxide electrodes for light trapping applications in solar cells.
Nanopatterning has gained tremendous importance in many fields of nanotechnology and applied sciences. Pattern generation is the first step and may be accomplished by top-down approaches such as electron-beam lithography or bottom-up approaches based on self-assembly methods such as nanosphere lithography or block copolymer lithography 1. As important as pattern generation is pattern replication. Besides photolithography, nanoimprinting (Figure 1) has emerged as a promising alternative in particular suitable for high-throughput large-area nanoscale patterning at low cost 2-4. While photolithography requires a patterned ma....
1. Mould Fabrication
We use our home-built nanoimprinting setup for the fabrication of the negative mould following Ref. 6, but any alternative nanoimprinting setup will work fine. Alternatively a functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould might also work.
Figure 3 summarizes some illustrative examples of nanomoulded structures. A ZnO master structure grown by CVD on glass is shown in (a). The corresponding nanomoulded ZnO replica is shown in (d). Comparison of the local height (g) and angle (j) histograms extracted from AFM images reveal the high fidelity of the nanomoulding process. Analogous results are shown for a one-dimensional grating fabricated by interference lithography (b,e,h,k) and anodically textured aluminum (c,f,i,l).
Nanomoulding allows the transfer of nanopatterns on arbitrary functional materials. Comparison of the individual processing steps in Figure 1 and 2 reveals the close relationship between nanomoulding and nanoimprinting. The major difference between nanomoulding and nanoimprinting is the additional material deposition step in Figure 2e. The remaining process flow is identical. Nanomoulding can therefore be performed on any available nanoimprinting setup.
The authors thank M. Leboeuf for assistance with the AFM, W. Lee for the anodically textured aluminum master and the Swiss Federal Energy Office and the Swiss National Science Foundation for funding. A part of this work was carried out in the framework of the FP7 project "Fast Track" funded by the EC under grant agreement no 283501.....
|Name of the Reagent
|(1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluoroctyl)-trichlorsilane, anti-adhesion agent
|Polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) sheets
|Ag sputter target 4N
|B2H6, SiH4, H2, B(CH3)3, PH3, CH4, CO2
|Univex 450 B
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