JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Biochemistry

Detection of Phospholipase C Activity in the Brain Homogenate from the Honeybee

Published: September 14th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58173

1Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo

To test the inhibitory effects of pharmacologic agents on phospholipase C (PLC) in different regions of the honeybee brain, we present a biochemical assay to measure PLC activity in those regions. This assay could be useful for comparing PLC activity among tissues, as well as among bees exhibiting different behaviors.

The honeybee is a model organism for evaluating complex behaviors and higher brain function, such as learning, memory, and division of labor. The mushroom body (MB) is a higher brain center proposed to be the neural substrate of complex honeybee behaviors. Although previous studies identified genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in the MBs and other brain regions, the activities of the proteins in each region are not yet fully understood. To reveal the functions of these proteins in the brain, pharmacologic analysis is a feasible approach, but it is first necessary to confirm that pharmacologic manipulations indeed alter the protein activity in these brain regions.

We previously identified a higher expression of genes encoding phospholipase C (PLC) in the MBs than in other brain regions, and pharmacologically assessed the involvement of PLC in honeybee behavior. In that study, we biochemically tested two pharmacologic agents and confirmed that they decreased PLC activity in the MBs and other brain regions. Here, we present a detailed description of how to detect PLC activity in honeybee brain homogenate. In this assay system, homogenates derived from different brain regions are reacted with a synthetic fluorogenic substrate, and fluorescence resulting from PLC activity is quantified and compared between brain regions. We also describe our evaluation of the inhibitory effects of certain drugs on PLC activity using the same system. Although this system is likely affected by other endogenous fluorescence compounds and/or the absorbance of the assay components and tissues, the measurement of PLC activity using this system is safer and easier than that using the traditional assay, which requires radiolabeled substrates. The simple procedure and manipulations allow us to examine PLC activity in the brains and other tissues of honeybees involved in different social tasks.

The European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) is a eusocial insect, and female bees show caste-dependent reproduction and age-dependent division of labor. For example, in the sterile caste of bees referred to as 'workers', younger individuals feed the broods while older ones forage nectar and pollen outside the hive1. Learning and memory ability is critically important in the life of the honeybee, because foragers must repeatedly go back and forth between food sources and their nest and then communicate the locations of good food sources to their nestmates through dance communication1. Previous stu....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Capture of Foraging Honeybees

  1. Purchase honeybee colonies from a local distributor.
  2. Using an insect net, catch forager bees which return to the hive with pollen bags on their hind legs. Transfer the bees to a standard 50-mL plastic conical tube and cap the tube (Figure 1). Put the tube on ice to anesthetize the bees.
    NOTE: Wear the designated jackets for beekeeping to avoid bee stings. Nursing bees can also be collected depending on the experiment. To catch the.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Protein Concentrations in Brain Homogenates:
We prepared homogenates using forager bees. The calculated protein concentrations in the original homogenates are shown in Figure 3. The approximate protein concentrations in the original homogenate were as follows: 1.5 mg/mL in the MBs and 2.3 mg/mL in other brain regions. We used two bees per lot and six lots were analyzed.

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The biochemical examination of protein activity is profoundly important for understanding molecular signaling in the brain, because the activity of an enzyme is affected by various molecules, such as substrates and inhibitors, and can, thus, change along with animal behavior (e.g., learning and memory)5. In honeybee studies, enzymes such as cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase, PKC, phosphorylated CaMKII, and adenylate cyclase are reported to be diffe.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Figure 4B - 4D was modified from Suenami et al.24 with the permission of Biology Open. The authors are grateful to the publisher for the permission. This work was supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGY0077/2016) to Shota Suenami and Ryo Miyazaki.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit ThermoFisher Scientific 23227 The reagent kit for measurement of protein concentration
Pierce Bovine Serum Albumin Standard Ampules 2mg/mL ThermoFisher Scientific 23209 The standard samples used in BCA assay
Paraffin wax GC 13B1X00155000141 Dental wax used as dissection stage
Insect pin Shiga No. 0 Stainless, solid head
PLCglow KXT Bio KCH-0001 A fluorogenic substrate of PLC
384-well microplate Corning 4511 Low-volume, round-bottom plate in black color
Gemini EM microplate reader Molecular Devices
Edelfosine Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-201021 pan-PLC inhibitor
Neomycin sulfate Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-3573 pan-PLC inhibitor

  1. Winston, M. L. . The Biology of the Honey Bee. , (1991).
  2. Szyszka, P., Galkin, A., Menzel, R. Associative and non-associative plasticity in Kenyon cells of the honeybee mushroom body. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2, 3 (2008).
  3. Müßig, L., et al. Acute disruption of the NMDA receptor subunit NR1 in the honeybee brain selectively impairs memory formation. The Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (23), 7817-7825 (2010).
  4. Devaud, J. -. M., et al. Neural substrate for higher-order learning in an insect: mushroom bodies are necessary for configural discriminations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (43), E5854-E5862 (2015).
  5. Grünbaum, L., Müller, U. Induction of a specific olfactory memory leads to a long-lasting activation of protein kinase C in the antennal lobe of the honeybee. The Journal of Neuroscience. 18 (11), 4384-4392 (1998).
  6. Kamikouchi, A., Takeuchi, H., Sawata, M., Natori, S., Kubo, T. Concentrated expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C in the mushroom bodies of the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 417 (4), 501-510 (2000).
  7. Sen Sarma, M., Rodriguez-Zas, S. L., Hong, F., Zhong, S., Robinson, G. E. Transcriptomic profiling of central nervous system regions in three species of honey bee during dance communication behavior. PLoS ONE. 4 (7), e6408 (2009).
  8. Kaneko, K., et al. In situ hybridization analysis of the expression of futsch, tau, and MESK2 homologues in the brain of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). PLoS ONE. 5 (2), e9213 (2010).
  9. Kaneko, K., et al. Novel middle-type Kenyon cells in the honeybee brain revealed by area-preferential gene expression analysis. PLoS ONE. 8 (8), e71732 (2013).
  10. Pasch, E., Muenz, T. S., Rössler, W. CaMKII is differentially localized in synaptic regions of kenyon cells within the mushroom bodies of the honeybee brain. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 519 (18), 3700-3712 (2011).
  11. Suenami, S., et al. Analysis of the differentiation of Kenyon cell subtypes using three mushroom body-preferential genes during metamorphosis in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). PLoS ONE. 11 (6), e0157841 (2016).
  12. Farooqui, T., Robinson, K., Vaessin, H., Smith, B. H. Modulation of early olfactory processing by an octopaminergic reinforcement pathway in the honeybee. The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (12), 5370-5380 (2003).
  13. Matsumoto, Y., et al. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, calmodulin, adenylyl cyclase, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are required for late, but not early, long-term memory formation in the honeybee. Learning & Memory. 21 (5), 272-286 (2014).
  14. Scholl, C., Kübert, N., Muenz, T. S., Rössler, W. CaMKII knockdown affects both early and late phases of olfactory long-term memory in the honeybee. Journal of Experimental Biology. 218, 3788-3796 (2015).
  15. Miyata, M., et al. Deficient long-term synaptic depression in the rostral cerebellum correlated with impaired motor learning in phospholipase C β4 mutant mice. European Journal of Neuroscience. 13 (10), 1945-1954 (2001).
  16. Koh, H. -. Y., Kim, D., Lee, J., Lee, S., Shin, H. -. S. Deficits in social behavior and sensorimotor gating in mice lacking phospholipase Cβ1. Genes, Brain and Behavior. 7 (1), 120-128 (2008).
  17. Quan, W. -. X., et al. Characteristics of behaviors and prepulse inhibition in phospholipase Cε-/- mice. Neurology,Psychiatry and Brain Research. 18 (4), 169-174 (2012).
  18. Rioult-Pedotti, M. -. S., Pekanovic, A., Atiemo, C. O., Marshall, J., Luft, A. R. Dopamine promotes motor cortex plasticity and motor skill learning via PLC activation. PLoS ONE. 10 (5), e0124986 (2015).
  19. Ghosh, A., Greenberg, M. E. Calcium signaling in neurons: molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences. Science. 268 (5208), 239-247 (1995).
  20. Smrcka, A. V., Brown, J. H., Holz, G. G. Role of phospholipase Cε in physiological phosphoinositide signaling networks. Cellular Signalling. 24 (6), 1333-1343 (2012).
  21. Dusaban, S. S., Brown, J. H. PLCε mediated sustained signaling pathways. Advances in Biological Regulation. 57, 17-23 (2015).
  22. Elgersma, Y., Sweatt, J. D., Giese, K. P. Mouse genetic approaches to investigating calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II function in plasticity and cognition. The Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (39), 8410-8415 (2004).
  23. Giese, K. P., Mizuno, K. The roles of protein kinases in learning and memory. Learning & Memory. 20 (10), 540-552 (2013).
  24. Suenami, S., Iino, S., Kubo, T. Pharmacologic inhibition of phospholipase C in the brain attenuates early memory formation in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Biology Open. 7 (1), (2018).
  25. Zhu, L., McKay, R. R., Shortridge, R. D. Tissue-specific expression of phospholipase C encoded by the norpA gene of Drosophila melanogaster. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (21), 15994-16001 (1993).
  26. Huang, W., Hicks, S. N., Sondek, J., Zhang, Q. A fluorogenic, small molecule reporter for mammalian phospholipase C isozymes. ACS Chemical Biology. 6 (3), 223-228 (2011).
  27. Yoshioka, T., Inoue, H., Hotta, Y. Absence of phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase in the head of a Drosophila visual mutant, norpA (no receptor potential A). The Journal of Biochemistry. 97 (4), 1251-1254 (1985).
  28. Janjanam, J., Chandaka, G. K., Kotla, S., Rao, G. N. PLCβ3 mediates cortactin interaction with WAVE2 in MCP1-induced actin polymerization and cell migration. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 26 (25), 4589-4606 (2015).
  29. Fiala, A., Müller, U., Menzel, R. Reversible downregulation of protein kinase A during olfactory learning using antisense technique impairs long-term memory formation in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. The Journal of Neuroscience. 19 (22), 10125-10134 (1999).
  30. Thamm, M., Scheiner, R. PKG in honey bees: spatial expression, Amfor gene expression, sucrose responsiveness, and division of labor. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 522 (8), 1786-1799 (2014).
  31. Balfanz, S., et al. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 42 (6), 435-445 (2012).
  32. Lopez, I., Mak, E. C., Ding, J., Hamm, H. E., Lomasney, J. W. A novel bifunctional phospholipase C that is regulated by Gα12 and stimulates the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (4), 2758-2765 (2001).
  33. Huang, W., et al. A membrane-associated, fluorogenic reporter for mammalian phospholipase C isozymes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 293 (5), 1728-1735 (2018).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved