JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Environment

Generating Homo- and Heterografts Between Watermelon and Bottle Gourd for the Study of Cold-responsive MicroRNAs

Published: November 20th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58242

1Institute of Vegetables, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2State Key Lab Breeding Base for Sustainable Control of Plant Pest and Disease, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 3Institute of Horticulture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 4Shanghai Biozeron Biotechnology Co., Ltd
* These authors contributed equally

Here we present a detailed protocol for efficiently making homo- and heterografts between watermelon and bottle gourd, in addition to methods of tissue sampling, data generation, and data analysis, for the investigation of cold-responsive microRNAs.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs of about 20 - 24 nt, known to play important roles in plant development and adaptation. There is an accumulating evidence showing that the expressions of certain miRNAs are altered when grafting, an agricultural practice commonly used by farmers to improve crop tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Bottle gourd is an inherently climate-resilient crop compared to many other major cucurbits, including watermelon, rendering it one of the most widely used rootstocks for the latter. The recent advancement of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided great opportunities to investigate cold-responsive miRNAs and their contributions to heterograft advantages; yet, adequate experimental procedures are a prerequisite for this purpose. Here, we present a detailed protocol for efficiently generating homo- and heterografts between the cold-susceptible watermelon and the cold-tolerant bottle gourd, in addition to methods of tissue sampling, data generation, and data analysis. The presented methods are also useful for other plant-grafting systems, to interrogate miRNA regulations under various environmental stresses, such as heat, drought, and salinity.

Grafting has long been employed as an agricultural technique to improve crop production and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses1,2,3. In heterografting systems, elite rootstocks can enhance water and nutrients uptake of plants, strengthen resistance to soil pathogens, and limit the negative effects of metal toxicity4,5, which may confer the grafts an enhanced growth vigor and increased tolerance to environmental stresses. In many cases, heterografting can also impact fruit qualities in horticultural plants, leadi....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Seed Sterilization and Germination

  1. For surface sterilization, soak the bottle gourd seeds in a 500-mL beaker filled with water at 58 °C with occasional stirring, until the water temperature drops to 40 °C.
  2. Meanwhile, put 3 kg of peat soil into a nylon bag and, to sterilize it, autoclave it at 120 °C/0.5 MPa for 20 min.
  3. Keep soaking the bottle gourd seeds for 4 - 5 h more with no stirring.
    1. Once the water reaches room temperature, rinse the seeds 2x - 3x with di.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Figure 2
Figure 2: Phenotypes of various grafts at room temperature and cold-stressed conditions. (a) This panel shows homo- and heterografted seedlings at room temperature as the control. (b) This panel shows homo- and heterografted seedlings after 48 h of cold treatment.

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

In this protocol, we described in detail a highly efficient and reproducible method to make homo- and heterografts between watermelon and bottle gourd. This method, requiring no specific equipment, is very easy to operate and typically has a very high survival rate of grafting. The method can also be used to make grafts for other cucurbits, such as between watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin.

It is worth noting that the relative size (age) of the rootstock and scion is critical to making a succe.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772291), the Research Project for Public Interest in Zhejiang Province (2017C32027), the Key Science Project of Plant Breeding in Zhejiang (2016C02051), and the National Program for the Support of Top-notch Young Professionals (to P.X.).

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
TRIzol Reagent Invitrogen 15596026
RNA-free DNase I Takara D2270A
Truseq Small RNA sample prep Kit Illumina RS-200-0012
2100 Bionalyser Agilent 5067
DNA Polymerase Thermo Fisher Scientific F530S
UEA sRNA workbench 2.4-plant version (software) NA NA http://srna-workbench.cmp.uea.ac.uk/
Rfam 11.0 database (website) NA NA http://rfam.janelia.org
miRBase 22.0 (website) NA NA http://www.mirbase.org/
MIREAP(software) NA NA https://sourceforge.net/projects/mireap/
TargetFinder (software) NA NA http://targetfinder.org/

  1. Schwarz, D., Rouphael, Y., Colla, G., Venema, J. H. Grafting as a tool to improve tolerance of vegetables to abiotic stresses: Thermal stress, water stress and organic pollutants. Scientia Horticulturae. 127, 162-171 (2010).
  2. Li, Y., et al. Mechanisms of tolerance differences in cucumber seedlings grafted on rootstocks with different tolerance to low temperature and weak light stresses. Turkish Journal of Botany. 39 (4), 606-614 (2015).
  3. Li, C. H., Li, Y. S., Bai, L. Q., He, C. X., Yu, X. C. Dynamic Expression of miRNAs and Their Targets in the Response to Drought Stress of Grafted Cucumber Seedlings. Horticultural Plant Journal. 2 (1), 41-49 (2016).
  4. Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Colla, G., Rea, E. Yield, mineral composition, water relations, and water use efficiency of grafted mini-watermelon plants under deficit irrigation. HortScience. 43 (3), 730-736 (2008).
  5. Savvas, D., et al. Interactive effects of grafting and manganese supply on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake by tomato. HortScience. 44 (7), 1978-1982 (2009).
  6. Aloni, B., Cohen, R., Karni, L., Aktas, H., Edelstein, M. Hormonal signaling in rootstock-scion interactions. Scientia Horticulturae. 127, 119-126 (2010).
  7. Rouphael, Y., Caradrelli, M., Rea, E., Colla, G. Improving melon and cucumber photosynthetic activity, mineral composition, and growth performance under salinity stress by grafting onto Cucurbita hybrid rootstocks. Photosynthetica. 50 (2), 180-188 (2012).
  8. Louws, F. J., Rivard, C. L., Kubota, C. Grafting fruiting vegetables to manage soilborne pathogens, foliar pathogens, arthropods and weeds. Scientia Horticulturae. 127 (2), 127-146 (2010).
  9. Asins, M. J., et al. Genetic analysis of rootstock-mediated nitrogen (N) uptake and root-to-shoot signalling at contrasting N availabilities in tomato. Plant Science. 263, 94-106 (2017).
  10. Yin, L. K., et al. Role of protective enzymes in tomato rootstocks to resist root knot nematodes. Acta Horticulturae. 1086 (1086), 213-218 (2015).
  11. Gaion, L. A., Carvalho, R. F. Long-Distance Signaling: what grafting has revealed?. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 37 (2), 694-704 (2018).
  12. Turnbull, C. G., Hennig, L., Köhler, C. Grafting as a research tool. Plant Developmental Biology. , 11-26 (2010).
  13. Li, C., et al. Grafting-responsive miRNAs in cucumber and pumpkin seedlings identified by high-throughput sequencing at whole genome level. Physiologia Plantarum. 151 (4), 406-422 (2014).
  14. Lakhotia, N., et al. Identification and characterization of miRNAome in root, stem, leaf and tuber developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by high-throughput sequencing. BMC Plant Biology. 14 (1), 6 (2014).
  15. Jones-Rhoades, M. W., Bartel, D. P., Bartel, B. MicroRNAs and their regulatory roles in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 57, 19-53 (2006).
  16. Puzey, J. R., Kramer, E. M. Identification of conserved Aquilegia coerulea microRNAs and their targets. Genetic. 448 (1), 46-56 (2009).
  17. Matthewman, C. A., et al. miR395 is a general component of the sulfate assimilation regulatory network in Arabidopsis. FEBS Letters. 586 (19), 3242-3248 (2012).
  18. Ali, E. M., et al. Transmission of RNA silencing signal through grafting confers virus resistance from transgenically silenced tobacco rootstocks to non-transgenic tomato and tobacco scions. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 25 (3), 245-252 (2016).
  19. Li, Y. S., Li, C. H., Bai, L. Q., He, C. X., Yu, X. C. MicroRNA and target gene responses to salt stress in grafted cucumber seedlings. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 38 (2), 1-12 (2016).
  20. Pagliarani, C., et al. The accumulation of miRNAs differentially modulated by drought stress is affected by grafting in grapevine. Plant Physiology. 173 (4), 2180-2195 (2017).
  21. Liu, N., Yang, J. H., Guo, S. G., Xu, Y., Zhang, M. F. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of conserved and novel microRNAs in grafted watermelon by high-throughput sequencing. PLoS One. 8 (2), e57359 (2013).
  22. Song, G. Development of 2JC-350 automatic grafting machine with cut grafting method for vegetable seedling. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. 22 (12), 103-106 (2006).
  23. Kumar, D., et al. Uncovering leaf rust responsive miRNAs in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) using high-throughput sequencing and prediction of their targets through degradome analysis. Planta. 245 (1), 1-22 (2016).
  24. Kohli, D., et al. Identification and characterization of wilt and salt stress-responsive microRNAs in chickpea through high-throughput sequencing. PLoS One. 9 (10), e108851 (2014).
  25. Salzberg, S. L. Computational challenges in next-generation genomics. International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management. ACM. 2, (2013).
  26. Guo, S. G., et al. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. Nature Genetics. 45, 51-58 (2013).
  27. Wang, Y., et al. Gourdbase: a genome-centered multi-omics database for the bottle gourd (lagenaria siceraria), an economically important cucurbit crop. Scientific Reports. 8 (1), 306 (2018).
  28. Wang, X. F., Liu, X. S. Systematic Curation of miRBase Annotation Using Integrated Small RNA High-Throughput Sequencing Data for C. elegans and Drosophila. Frontiers in Genetics. 2, 25 (2011).
  29. Bo, X. C., Wang, S. Q. TargetFinder: a software for antisense oligonucleotide target site selection based on MAST and secondary structures of target mRNA. Bioinformatics. 21 (8), 1401-1402 (2005).
  30. . GOATOOLS: Tools for Gene Ontology Available from: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.31628 (2015)
  31. Wang, L. P., Li, G. J., Wu, X. H., Xu, P. Comparative proteomic analyses provide novel insights into the effects of grafting wound and hetero-grafting per se on bottle gourd. Scientia Horticulturae. 200 (8), 1-6 (2016).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved