JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Medicine

Noninvasive Determination of Vortex Formation Time Using Transesophageal Echocardiography During Cardiac Surgery

Published: November 28th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58374

1Anesthesia Service, Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin

We describe a protocol to measure vortex formation time, an index of left ventricular filling efficiency, using standard transesophageal echocardiography techniques in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We apply this technique to analyze vortex formation time in several groups of patients with differing cardiac pathologies.

Trans-mitral blood flow produces a three-dimensional rotational body of fluid, known as a vortex ring, that enhances the efficiency of left ventricular (LV) filling compared with a continuous linear jet. Vortex ring development is most often quantified with vortex formation time (VFT), a dimensionless parameter based on fluid ejection from a rigid tube. Our group is interested in factors that affect LV filling efficiency during cardiac surgery. In this report, we describe how to use standard two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to noninvasively derive the variables needed to calculate VFT. We calculate atrial filling fraction (β) from velocity-time integrals of trans-mitral early LV filling and atrial systole blood flow velocity waveforms measured in the mid-esophageal four-chamber TEE view. Stroke volume (SV) is calculated as the product of the diameter of the LV outflow track measured in the mid-esophageal long axis TEE view and the velocity-time integral of blood flow through the outflow track determined in the deep transgastric view using pulse-wave Doppler. Finally, mitral valve diameter (D) is determined as the average of major and minor axis lengths measured in orthogonal mid-esophageal bicommissural and long axis imaging planes, respectively. VFT is then calculated as 4 × (1-β) × SV/(πD3). We have used this technique to analyze VFT in several groups of patients with differing cardiac abnormalities. We discuss our application of this technique and its potential limitations and also review our results to date. Noninvasive measurement of VFT using TEE is straightforward in anesthetized patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The technique may allow cardiac anesthesiologists and surgeons to assess the impact of pathological conditions and surgical interventions on LV filling efficiency in real time.

Fluid mechanics is a critical yet often underappreciated determinant of left ventricular (LV) filling. A three-dimensional rotational body of fluid, known as a vortex ring, is generated whenever a fluid traverses an orifice1,2,3. This vortex ring improves the efficiency of fluid transport compared with a continuous linear jet4. Movement of blood through the mitral valve during early LV filling causes a vortex ring to form5,6,7,8

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The Institutional Review Board of the Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center approved the protocols. Written informed consent was waived because invasive cardiac monitoring and TEE are routinely used in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our institution. Patients with relative or absolute contraindications for TEE, those undergoing repeat median sternotomy or emergency surgery, and those with atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias were excluded from participation.

1. Anesthe.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The current technique allowed us to reliably measure VFT during cardiac surgery under a variety of clinical conditions by obtaining each determinant from blood flow and dimensional recordings in standard TEE imaging planes. A pulse-wave Doppler sample volume was placed at the tips of the mitral leaflets in the mid-esophageal four-chamber view to obtain the trans-mitral blood flow velocity profile necessary to calculate atrial filling fraction (β; Figure 1

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The current results illustrate that VFT can be reliably measured during cardiac surgery using the TEE techniques described here. Previous descriptions of VFT used transthoracic echocardiography in conscious subjects, but this approach cannot be utilized when the chest is open. We used intraoperative TEE to determine VFT in the anesthetized patients undergoing cardiac surgery during which changes in LV filling dynamics are often encountered as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury or surgical interventions. Our findings.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of the facilities at the Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Echocardiography Machine Philips Ultrasound, Bothall, WA iE33
Transesophageal Echocardiography Probe Philips Ultrasound, Bothall, WA X7-2t
Statistical Software AnalystSoft, Walnut, CA StatPlus:mac Pro

  1. Collier, E., Hertzberg, J., Shandas, R. Regression analysis for vortex ring characteristics during left ventricular filling. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation. 38 (2), 307-311 (2002).
  2. Kheradvar, A., Gharib, M. Influence of ventricular pressure drop on mitral annulus dynamics through the process of vortex ring formation. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 35 (12), 2050-2064 (2007).
  3. Gharib, M., Rambod, E., Shariff, K. A universal time scale for vortex ring formation. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 360 (1), 121-140 (1998).
  4. Krueger, P. S., Gharib, M. The significance of vortex ring formation to the impulse and thrust of a starting jet. Physics of Fluids. 15 (5), 1271-1281 (2003).
  5. Reul, H., Talukder, N., Muller, W. Fluid mechanics of the natural mitral valve. Journal of Biomechanics. 14 (5), 361-372 (1981).
  6. Kim, W. Y., et al. Two-dimensional mitral flow velocity profiles in pig models using epicardial Doppler echocardiography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 24 (2), 532-545 (1994).
  7. Kilner, P. J., et al. Asymmetic redirection of flow through the heart. Nature. 404 (6779), 759-761 (2000).
  8. Gharib, M., Rambod, E., Kheradvar, A., Sahn, D. J., Dabiri, J. O. Optimal vortex formation as an index of cardiac health. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 103 (16), 6305-6308 (2006).
  9. Rodriguez Munoz, D., et al. Intracardiac flow visualization: current status and future directions. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging. 14 (11), 1029-1038 (2013).
  10. Martinez-Legazpi, P., et al. Contribution of the diastolic vortex ring to left ventricular filling. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 64 (16), 1711-1721 (2014).
  11. Dabiri, J. O., Gharib, M. The role of optimal vortex formation in biological fluid transport. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 272 (1572), 1557-1560 (2003).
  12. Kheradvar, A., Gharib, M. On mitral valve dynamics and its connection to early diastolic flow. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 37 (1), 1-13 (2009).
  13. Linden, P. F., Turner, J. S. The formation of "optimal" vortex rings, and the efficiency of propulsion devices. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 427 (1), 61-72 (2001).
  14. Domenichini, F., Pedrizzetti, G., Baccani, B. Three-dimensional filling flow into a model left ventricle. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 539 (1), 179-198 (2005).
  15. Sengupta, P. P., et al. Left ventricular isovolumic flow sequence during sinus and paced rhythms: new insights from use of high-resolution Doppler and ultrasonic digital particle imaging velocimetry. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 49 (8), 899-908 (2007).
  16. Rodriguez Munoz, D., et al. Flow mapping inside a left ventricular aneurysm: a potential tool to demonstrate thrombogenicity. Echocardiography. 31 (1), E10-E12 (2014).
  17. Son, J. W., et al. Abnormal left ventricular vortex flow patterns in association with left ventricular apical thrombus formation in patients with anterior myocardial infarction: a quantitative analysis by contrast echocardiography. Circulation Journal. 76 (11), 2640-2646 (2012).
  18. Kheradvar, A., Falahatpisheh, A. The effects of dynamic saddle annulus and leaflet length on trans-mitral flow pattern and leaflet stress of a bileaflet bioprosthetic mitral valve. The Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 21 (2), 225-233 (2012).
  19. Kheradvar, A., Assadi, R., Falahatpisheh, A., Sengupta, P. P. Assessment of trans-mitral vortex formation in patients with diastolic dysfunction. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 25 (2), 220-227 (2012).
  20. Chen, R., et al. Assessment of left ventricular hemodynamics and function of patients with uremia by vortex formation using vector flow mapping. Echocardiography. 29 (9), 1081-1090 (2012).
  21. Hendabadi, S., et al. Topology of blood transport in the human left ventricle by novel processing of Doppler echocardiography. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 41 (12), 2603-2616 (2013).
  22. Sengupta, P. P., Pedrizetti, G., Narula, J. Multiplaner visualization of blood flow using echocardiographic particle imaging velocimetry. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging. 5 (5), 566-569 (2012).
  23. Sengupta, P. P., et al. Emerging trends in CV flow visualization. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging. 5 (3), 305-316 (2012).
  24. Hong, G. R., Kim, M., Pedrizzetti, G., Vannan, M. A. Current clinical application of intracardiac flow analysis using echocardiography. Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound. 21 (4), 155-162 (2013).
  25. Kheradvar, A., Milano, M., Gharib, M. Correlation between vortex ring formation and mitral annulus dynamics during ventricular rapid filling. American Society for Artificial Internal Organs Journal. 53 (1), 8-16 (2007).
  26. Hong, G. R., et al. Characterization and quantification of vortex flow in the human left ventricle by contrast echocardiography using vector particle image velocimetry. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging. 1 (6), 705-717 (2008).
  27. Zhang, H., et al. The evolution of intraventricular vortex during ejection studied by using vector flow mapping. Echocardiography. 30 (1), 27-36 (2013).
  28. Nogami, Y., et al. Abnormal early diastolic intraventricular flow 'kinetic energy index' assessed by vector flow mapping in patients with elevated filling pressure. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging. 14 (3), 253-260 (2013).
  29. Zhang, H., et al. The left ventricular intracavity vortex during the isovolumic contraction period as detected by vector flow mapping. Echocardiography. 29 (5), 579-587 (2012).
  30. Poh, K. K., et al. Left ventricular filling dynamics in heart failure: echocardiographic measurement and utilities of vortex formation time. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging. 13 (5), 385-393 (2012).
  31. Belohlavek, M. Vortex formation time: an emerging echocardiographic index of left ventricular filling efficiency?. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging. 13 (5), 367-369 (2012).
  32. Dabiri, J. O., Gharib, M. Starting flow through nozzles with temporally variable exit diameter. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 538 (1), 111-136 (2005).
  33. Jiamsripong, P., et al. Impact of acute moderate elevation in left ventricular afterload on diastolic trans-mitral flow efficiency: analysis by vortex formation time. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 22 (4), 427-431 (2009).
  34. Belohlavek, M., et al. Patients with Alzheimer disease have altered trans-mitral flow: echocardiographic analysis of the vortex formation time. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 28 (11), 1493-1500 (2009).
  35. Pedrizzetti, G., Domenichini, F., Tonti, G. On the left ventricular vortex reversal after mitral valve replacement. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 38 (3), 769-773 (2010).
  36. Martinez-Legazpi, P., et al. Stasis mapping using ultrasound: a prospective study in acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging. 11 (3), 514-515 (2018).
  37. Harfi, T. T., et al. The E-wave propagation index (EPI): a novel echocardiographic parameter for prediction of left ventricular thrombus. Derivation from computational fluid dynamic modeling and validation on human subjects. International Journal of Cardiology. 227 (1), 662-667 (2017).
  38. Pagel, P. S., Boettcher, B. T., De Vry, D. J., Freed, J. K., Iqbal, Z. Moderate aortic valvular insufficiency invalidates vortex formation time as an index of left ventricular filling efficiency in patients with severe degenerative calcific aortic stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 30 (5), 1260-1265 (2016).
  39. Pagel, P. S., Gandhi, S. D., Iqbal, Z., Hudetz, J. A. Cardiopulmonary bypass transiently inhibits intraventricular vortex ring formation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 26 (3), 376-380 (2012).
  40. Pagel, P. S., Hudetz, J. A. Chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy attenuates vortex formation time in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular systolic function undergoing aortic valve replacement. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 27 (4), 660-664 (2013).
  41. Pagel, P. S., Dye, L., Boettcher, B. T., Freed, J. K. Advanced age attenuates left ventricular filling efficiency quantified using vortex formation time: a study of octogenarians with normal left ventricular systolic function undergoing coronary artery surgery. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 32 (4), 1775-1779 (2018).
  42. Shanewise, J. S., et al. ASE/SCA guidelines for performing a comprehensive intraoperative multiplane transesophageal echocardiography examination: recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography Council for Intraoperative Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Task Force for Certification in Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 12 (10), 884-900 (1999).
  43. Gaspar, T., et al. Three-dimensional imaging of the left ventricular outflow tract: impact on aortic valve area estimation by the continuity equation. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 25 (7), 749-757 (2012).
  44. Karamnov, S., Burbano-Vera, N., Huang, C. C., Fox, J. A., Shernan, S. A. Echocardiographic assessment of mitral stenosis orifice area: a comparison of a novel three-dimensional method versus conventional techniques. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 125 (3), 774-780 (2017).
  45. Pagel, P. S., Kampine, J. P., Schmeling, W. T., Warltier, D. C. Comparison of end-systolic pressure-length relations and preload recruitable stroke work as indices of myocardial contractility in the conscious and anesthetized, chronically instrumented dog. Anesthesiology. 73 (2), 278-290 (1990).
  46. Pagel, P. S., Kampine, J. P., Schmeling, W. T., Warltier, D. C. Alteration of left ventricular diastolic function by desflurane, isoflurane, and halothane in the chronically instrumented dog with autonomic nervous system blockade. Anesthesiology. 74 (6), 1103-1114 (1991).
  47. De Hert, S. G., Rodrigus, I. E., Haenen, L. R., De Mulder, P. A., Gillebert, T. C. Recovery of systolic and diastolic left ventricular function early after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology. 85 (5), 1063-1075 (1996).
  48. Gorcsan, J., Diana, P., Lee, J., Katz, W. E., Hattler, B. G. Reversible diastolic dysfunction after successful coronary artery bypass surgery. Assessment by transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Chest. 106 (5), 1364-1369 (1994).
  49. Djaiani, G. N., et al. Mitral flow propagation velocity identifies patients with abnormal diastolic function during coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 95 (3), 524-530 (2002).
  50. Casthely, P. A., et al. Left ventricular diastolic function after coronary artery bypass grafting: a correlative study with three different myocardial protection techniques. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 114 (2), 254-260 (1997).
  51. Tulner, S. A., et al. Perioperative assessment of left ventricular function by pressure-volume loops using the conductance catheter method. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 97 (4), 950-957 (2003).
  52. Firstenberg, M. S., et al. Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function. Circulation. 104 (12 Suppl 1), I330-I335 (2001).
  53. Cooke, J., Hertzberg, J., Boardman, M., Shandas, R. Characterizing vortex ring behavior during ventricular filling with Doppler echocardiography: an in vitro study. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 32 (2), 245-256 (2004).
  54. Grossman, W., Jones, D., McLaurin, L. P. Wall stress and patterns of hypertrophy in the human left ventricle. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 56 (1), 56-64 (1975).
  55. Hess, O. M., et al. Diastolic function and myocardial structure in patients with myocardial hypertrophy. Special reference to normalized viscoelastic data. Circulation. 63 (2), 360-371 (1981).
  56. Hess, O. M., et al. Diastolic stiffness and myocardial structure in aortic valve disease before and after valve replacement. Circulation. 69 (5), 855-865 (1984).
  57. Sandstede, J. J. W., et al. Cardiac systolic rotation and contraction before and after valve replacement for aortic stenosis: a myocardial tagging study using MR imaging. American Journal of Roentgenology. 178 (4), 953-958 (2002).
  58. Stuber, M., et al. Alterations in the local myocardial motion pattern in patients suffering from pressure overload due to aortic stenosis. Circulation. 100 (4), 361-368 (1999).
  59. Nagel, E., et al. Cardiac rotation and relaxation in patients with aortic valve stenosis. European Heart Journal. 21 (7), 582-589 (2000).
  60. Rakowski, H., et al. Canadian consensus recommendations for the measurement and reporting of diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography: from the Investigators of Consensus on Diastolic Dysfunction by Echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 9 (5), 736-760 (1996).
  61. Homeyer, P., Oxorn, D. C. Aortic regurgitation: echocardiographic diagnosis. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 122 (1), 37-42 (2016).
  62. Landzberg, J. S., et al. Etiology of the Austin Flint murmur. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 20 (2), 408-413 (1992).
  63. Flint, A. On cardiac murmurs. American Journal of Medical Sciences. 91 (1), 27 (1886).
  64. Botvinick, E. H., Schiller, N. B., Wickramasekaran, R., Klausner, S. C., Gertz, E. Echocardiographic demonstration of early mitral valve closure in severe aortic insufficiency. Its clinical implications. Circulation. 51 (5), 836-847 (1975).
  65. Mann, T., McLaurin, L., Grossman, W., Craige, E. Assessing the hemodynamic severity of acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis. New England Journal of Medicine. 293 (3), 108-113 (1975).
  66. Borlaug, B. A., et al. Longitudinal changes in left ventricular stiffness: a community-based study. Circulation Heart Failure. 6 (5), 944-952 (2013).
  67. Wong, J., et al. Age-related changes in intraventricular kinetic energy: a physiological or pathological adaptation?. American Journal of Physiology Heart Circulatory Physiology. 310 (6), H747-H755 (2016).
  68. Carrick-Ranson, G., et al. Effect of healthy aging on left ventricular relaxation and diastolic suction. American Journal of Physiology Heart Circulatory Physiology. 303 (3), H315-H322 (2012).
  69. Iskandrian, A. S., Hakki, A. H. Age-related changes in left ventricular diastolic performance. American Heart Journal. 112 (1), 75-78 (1986).
  70. Schulman, S. P., et al. Age-related decline in left ventricular filling at rest and exercise. American Journal of Physiology. 263 (6 Pt 2), H1932-H1938 (1992).
  71. Stork, M., et al. Age-related hemodynamic changes during diastole: a combined M-mode and Doppler echo study. Internal Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. 6 (1), 23-30 (1991).
  72. Sanders, D., Dudley, M., Groban, L. Diastolic dysfunction, cardiovascular aging, and the anesthesiologist. Anesthesiology Clinics. 27 (3), 497-517 (2009).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved