JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Chemistry

Extending the Lifespan of Soluble Lead Flow Batteries with a Sodium Acetate Additive

Published: January 7th, 2019

DOI:

10.3791/58484

1Bio-industrial Mechatronics Engineering Department, National Taiwan University

A protocol for the construction of a soluble lead flow battery with an extended lifespan, in which sodium acetate is supplied in the methanesulfonic electrolyte as an additive, is presented.

In this report, we present a method for the construction of a soluble lead flow battery (SLFB) with an extended cycle life. By supplying an adequate amount of sodium acetate (NaOAc) to the electrolyte, a cycle life extension of over 50% is demonstrated for SLFBs via long-term galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments. A higher quality of the PbO2 electrodeposit at the positive electrode is quantitatively validated for NaOAc-added electrolyte by throwing index (TI) measurements. Images acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also exhibit more integrated PbO2 surface morphology when the SLFB is operated with the NaOAc-added electrolyte. This work indicates that electrolyte modification can be a plausible route to economically enable SLFBs for large-scale energy storage.

Renewable energy sources including solar and wind have been developed for decades, but their intermittent nature poses great challenges. For a future power grid with renewable energy sources incorporated, grid stabilization and load leveling are critical and can be achieved by integrating energy storage. Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are one of the promising options for grid-scale energy storage. Traditional RFBs contain ion-selective membranes separating anolyte and catholyte; for example, the all-vanadium RFB has shown to operate with high efficiency and a long cycle life1,2. However, their market share as ene....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Construction of a SLFB Beaker Cell with a Sodium Acetate Additive

NOTE: This section describes the procedure to construct a SLFB beaker cell with an additive for long-term cycling experiment. The protocol includes the electrolyte preparation with and without additive, electrode pretreatment, cell assembly, and efficiency calculations.

  1. Preparation of lead methanesulfonate (1 L, 1 M as an example)
    1. In the fume hood, add 274.6 g of methanesulfonic acid (.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

To extend cycle life of SLFBs, NaOAc is supplied as an electrolyte additive. Cycling performance of SLFBs with and without NaOAc additive are examined in parallel, and results are shown in Figure 3. For easier quantitative comparison of cycle life, we define the "death" of a SLFB as when its CE is lower than 80% under continuous galvanostatic charge/discharge. Figure 3a and 3b show that approximately 50% .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This paper describes an economical method to extend the cycle life of SLFBs: by employing NaOAc agent as an electrolyte additive. A batch of fresh graphite electrodes and nickel plates are preprocessed as aforementioned in Step 1 before long-term cycling experiments. Because inconsistency among commercial carbon electrodes may cause performance deviation of the SLFBs, the physical/chemical pretreatment in Step 1.4 is critical to remove surface residues. The second part of Step 1.4 is employing electrochemical methods to .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, R.O.C., under the funding number of NSC 102-2221-E-002-146-, MOST 103-2221-E-002-233-, and MOST 104-2628-E-002-016-MY3.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
70 mm cellulose filter paper Advance
Autolab Metrohm PGSTA302N
BT-Lab BioLogic BCS-810
commercial carbon composite electrode Homy Tech,Taiwan Density 1.75 g cm-3, and electrical conductivity 330 S cm-1
Diamond saw Buehler
Hydrochloric Acid SHOWA 0812-0150-000-69SW 35%
Lead (II) Oxide SHOWA 1209-0250-000-23SW 98%
Lutropur MSA BASF 50707525 70%
nickel plate Lien Hung Alloy Trading Co., LTD., Taiwan,  99%
Potassium Nitrate Scharlab 28703-95 99%
Scanning electron microscopy JEOL JSM-7800F at accelerating voltage of 15 kV
Sodium Acetate SHOWA 1922-5250-000-23SW 98%
water purification system Barnstead MicroPure  18.2 MΩ • cm

  1. Soloveichik, G. L. Flow batteries: current status & trends. Chemical Reviews. 115 (20), 11533-11558 (2015).
  2. Ravikumar, M. K., Rathod, S., Jaiswal, N., Patil, S., Shukla, A. The renaissance in redox flow batteries. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry. 21 (9), 2467-2488 (2017).
  3. Hazza, A., Pletcher, D., Wills, R. A novel flow battery: A lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II) Part I. Preliminary studies. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 6 (8), 1773-1778 (2004).
  4. Pletcher, D., Wills, R. A novel flow battery: A lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II) Part II. Flow cell studies. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 6 (8), 1779-1785 (2004).
  5. Pletcher, D., Wills, R. A novel flow battery-a lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II). III. The influence of conditions on battery performance. Journal of Power Sources. 149, 96-102 (2005).
  6. Hazza, A., Pletcher, D., Wills, R. A novel flow battery-a lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II). IV. The influence of additives. Journal of Power Sources. 149, 103-111 (2005).
  7. Pletcher, D., Zhou, H., Kear, G., Low, C. T. J., Walsh, F. C., Wills, R. G. A. A novel flow battery-A lead-acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II). V. Studies of the lead negative electrode. Journal of Power Sources. 180 (1), 621-629 (2008).
  8. Pletcher, D., Zhou, H., Kear, G., Low, C. T. J., Walsh, F. C., Wills, R. G. A. A novel flow battery-A lead-acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II). Part VI. Studies of the lead dioxide positive electrode. Journal of Power Sources. 180 (1), 630-634 (2008).
  9. Li, X., Pletcher, D., Walsh, F. C. A novel flow battery: a lead acid battery based on an electrolyte with soluble lead (II). Part VII. Further studies of the lead dioxide positive electrode. Electrochimica Acta. 54 (20), 4688-4695 (2009).
  10. Krishna, M., Fraser, E. J., Wills, R. G. A., Walsh, F. C. Developments in soluble lead flow batteries and remaining challenges: An illustrated review. Journal of Energy Storage. 15, 69-90 (2018).
  11. Lin, Y. -. T., Tan, H. -. L., Lee, C. -. Y., Chen, H. -. Y. Stabilizing the electrodeposit-electrolyte interphase in soluble lead flow batteries with ethanoate additive. Electrochimica Acta. 263, 60-67 (2018).
  12. Oury, A., Kirchev, A., Bultel, Y., Chainet, E. PbO2/Pb2+ cycling in methanesulfonic acid and mechanisms associated for soluble lead-acid flow battery applications. Electrochimica Acta. 71, 140-149 (2012).
  13. Oury, A., Kirchev, A., Bultel, Y. Potential response of lead dioxide/Lead (II) galvanostatic cycling in methanesulfonic acid: a morphologico-kinetics interpretation. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 160 (1), A148-A154 (2013).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved