JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Behavior

Validation of a Psychosocial Intervention on Body Image in Older People: An Experimental Design

Published: May 31st, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62506

1Department of Social Sciences and Applied Languages, Alfonso X El Sabio University, 2Department of Psychology of Education and Psychobiology, International University of La Rioja (UNIR)

This experimental intervention examines the body satisfaction of older people. The aim is to compare a specific intervention with another general program and determine which is more effective for improving body satisfaction in people over fifty years old.

For most people, body satisfaction is crucial to develop both a positive self-concept and self-esteem, and therefore, it can influence mental health and well-being. This idea has been tested with younger people, but no studies explore whether body image interventions are useful when people age. This research validates a specific program designed for older people (IMAGINA Specific Body Image Program). This is done by employing a mixed experimental design, with between-subject and within-subject comparisons that focus on body satisfaction before and after experimental treatment, comparing two groups. Using this experimental methodology makes it possible to identify the effect of the intervention in a group of 176 people. The score obtained with the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was the dependent variable, and the IMAGINA program was the independent one. As for age, gender, relationship status, season, and residence environment, these were controlled variables. There were significant differences in body satisfaction between the two programs, obtaining better results with IMAGINA. The controlled variables had a much less significant effect than the treatment. Therefore, it is possible to improve body satisfaction in older adults through interventions similar to the one presented here.

In Western societies, looking good, healthy, and young is very important to feel right, fit in, interact with others, and be successful, becoming a core element of the self-concept and self-esteem. How satisfied one person is with her/his body depends on personal perception, specifically, with how s/he feels, perceives, imagines, and reacts to physical appearance and body functioning1,2. Following this definition, it is possible to identify two qualitatively different dimensions within this construct. On the one hand, there is the perceptive dimension, which depends on evaluating the size, shape, and proportio....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The Committee reviewed the Protocol on Scientific Conduct and Ethics of the Alfonso X el Sabio University. Also, a group of scientists external to the research team checked and approved the complete experimental process. To allowing participation in the study, it was necessary to sign an informed consent accepting to enroll in the program, as recommended by the Declaration of Helsinki30. Before enrollment, it was ensured that none of the participants would suffer any psychological stress or harm r.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The experimental research followed a mixed design, with between-subject measurements (experimental and control groups) and repeated measurements before and after treatment.

IMAGINA program by Sánchez-Cabrero (2012)26 was selected as the experimental therapeutical program to increase body image satisfaction of older adults in Spain. It has eight group-sessions of 90-120 minutes duration each, aiming at entertaining and engaging participants, using activities pr.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This experimental work supports the positive consequences of participating in a body satisfaction program in older people by examining satisfaction values before and after the intervention and comparing experimental and non-experimental groups. Also, the control of other intervening variables improves the reliability and validity of the results obtained.

The most critical step of the protocol was the selection of the program applied in the control group. It was necessary to replicate the same .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

All contributing authors wish to express their gratitude to the Spanish Red Cross, because without its support we could not have done this research. Also, we appreciate a lot of the feedback and help from the Committee on Scientific Conduct and Ethics of the Alfonso X el Sabio University.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) International Journal of Eating Disorders 1987 Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) developed by Cooper, Taylor, Cooper, and Fairburn (1987), which was adapted and scaled to Spanish participants by Raich et al. (1996). This is a self-report of 34 items following a Likert scale that goes from 1 (never) to 6 (always). The final score ranges from 34 to 204 and scoring above 110 indicates dissatisfaction and discomfort with physical appearance (Cooper et al., 1987). It is a reliable instrument since several studies have reported Cronbach’s α between 0.95 and 0.97. Also, the BSQ has good external validity, i.e., it is convergent with other similar tools, such as the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire, MBSRQ (Cash, 2015) and the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, EDI (Garner, Olmstead, and Polivy, 1983).
IMAGINA: programa de mejora de la autoestima y la imagen corporal para adultos Sinindice 2012 IMAGINA Program was meant to be a therapeutical tool to increase a body image satisfaction of older adults in Spain. It has eight group-sessions of 90-120 minutes duration each, aiming at entertaining and engaging participants. Body image and self-esteem are expected to improve through social participation, communication, body image workshops, and healthy nutrition information.
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM 24 Software package used in statistical analysis of data

  1. Cash, T. F. Body Image: A joyous journey. Body Image. 23, 1-2 (2017).
  2. Sánchez-Cabrero, R., León-Mejía, A. C., Arigita-García, A., Maganto-Mateo, C. Improvement of Body Satisfaction in Older People: An Experimental Study. Frontiers inPsychology. 10 (2823), (2019).
  3. Maganto, C., Garaigordobil, M., Kortabarria, L. Eating Problems in Adolescents and Youths: Explanatory Variables. The Spanish Journal of Psychology. 19, 81 (2016).
  4. McGuire, J. K., Doty, J. L., Catalpa, J. M., Ola, C. Body image in transgender young people: Findings from a qualitative, community based study. Body Image. 18, 96-107 (2016).
  5. Tylka, T. L., Wood-Barcalow, N. L. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition. Body Image. 14, 118-129 (2015).
  6. Fernández-Bustos, J. -. G., González-Martí, I., Contreras, O., Cuevas, R. Relación entre imagen corporal y autoconcepto físico en mujeres adolescentes. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología. 47 (1), 25-33 (2015).
  7. Grogan, S. . Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women and children. , (2016).
  8. Kvalem, I. L., Træen, B., Markovic, A., von Soest, T. Body image development and sexual satisfaction: A prospective study from adolescence to adulthood. The Journal of Sex Research. 56 (6), 791-801 (2019).
  9. Jankowski, G. S., Diedrichs, P. C., Williamson, H., Christopher, G., Harcourt, D. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults. Journal of Health Psychology. 21 (4), 550-561 (2016).
  10. Sabik, N., Versey, H. S. Functional limitations, body perceptions, and health outcomes among older African American women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 22 (4), 94 (2016).
  11. Gubrium, J. F., Holstein, J. A. The Life Course. Handbook of symbolic interactionism. , 835-855 (2006).
  12. Longo, M. R. Implicit and explicit body representations. European Psychologist. 10 (1), 6-15 (2015).
  13. Chang, H. K. Influencing factors on mid-life crisis. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing. 30 (1), 98-105 (2018).
  14. Sánchez-Cabrero, R., Carranza-Herrezuelo, N., Novillo-López, M. A., Pericacho-Gómez, F. J. The Importance of Physical Appearance during the Ageing Process in Spain. Interrelation between Body and Life Satisfaction during Maturity and the Old Age. Activities, Adaptation & Aging. 44 (3), 210-224 (2020).
  15. Schoufour, J. D., et al. Socio-economic indicators and diet quality in an older population. Maturitas. 107, 71-77 (2018).
  16. Kihlstrom, J. F., Srull, T. K., Wyer, R. S. . What does the self-look like? The mental representation of trait and autobiographical knowledge about the self. , 87-98 (2015).
  17. Bratt, C., Abrams, D., Swift, H. J., Vauclair, C. M., Marques, S. Perceived age discrimination across age in Europe: From an ageing society to a society for all ages. Developmental Psychology. 54 (1), 167-180 (2018).
  18. Sanchez-Cabrero, R. Mejora de la satisfacción corporal en la madurez a través de un programa específico de imagen corporal. Universitas Psychologica. 19 (1), 1-15 (2020).
  19. Voelker, D. K., Reel, J. J., Greenleaf, C. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: Current perspectives. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics. 6, 149-158 (2015).
  20. Cash, T. F. . The body image workbook: An 8-step program for learning to like your looks. , (1997).
  21. Maganto, C., Del Río, A., Roiz, O. . Programa preventivo sobre Imagen corporal y Trastornos de la Alimentación (PICTA). , (2002).
  22. Kilpela, L. S., Blomquist, K., Verzijl, C., Wilfred, S., Beyl, R., Becker, C. B. The body project 4 all: A pilot randomized controlled trial of a mixed-gender dissonance-based body image program. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 49 (6), 591-602 (2016).
  23. Halliwell, E., et al. Body image in primary schools: A pilot evaluation of a primary school intervention program designed by teachers to improve children's body satisfaction. Body Image. 19, 133-141 (2016).
  24. McCabe, M. P., Connaughton, C., Tatangelo, G., Mellor, D., Busija, L. Healthy me: A gender-specific program to address body image concerns and risk factors among preadolescents. Body Image. 20, 20-30 (2017).
  25. Bailey, K. A., Gammage, K. L., van Ingen, C. Designing and implementing a positive body image program: Unchartered territory with a diverse team of participants. Action Research. 17 (2), 146-161 (2019).
  26. Sánchez-Cabrero, R. . IMAGINA: programa de mejora de la autoestima y la imagen corporal para adultos. , (2012).
  27. Kozar, J. M. Relationship of attitudes toward advertising images and self-perceptions of older women. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 65 (8), 3116 (2005).
  28. Hudson, N. W., Lucas, R. E., Donnellan, M. B. Getting older, feeling less? A cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation of developmental patterns in experiential well-being. Psychology and Aging. 31 (8), 847-861 (2016).
  29. Mangweth-Matzek, B., et al. Never too old for eating disorders or body dissatisfaction: A community study of elderly women. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 39 (7), 583-586 (2006).
  30. World Medical Association. WMA declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. World Medical Association. , (2013).
  31. Spanish Red Cross. . Promoting Healthy Aging: Consistent Health. , (2017).
  32. Spanish Red Cross. . Exercise book and mental agility activities for the elderly. , (2013).
  33. Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., Fairburn, C. G. The development and validation of the Body Shape Questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders. , (1987).
  34. Raich, R. M., et al. Adaptación de un instrumento de evaluación de la insatisfacción corporal (BSQ). Clínica y Salud. 8, 51-66 (1996).
  35. Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., Polivy, J. Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2 (2), 15-34 (1983).
  36. Cash, T. F. Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). Encyclopedia of Feeding and Eating Disorders. , 1-4 (2015).
  37. Baile, J. I., Guillén, F., Garrido, E. Insatisfacción corporal en adolescentes medida con el Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ): Efecto del anonimato, el sexo y la edad. Revista Internacional de Psicología Clínica y de La Salud. 2 (3), 439-450 (2002).
  38. Conti, M. A., Cordás, T. A., Latorre, M. R. D. O. A study of the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among adolescents. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil. 9 (3), 331-338 (2009).
  39. Moreno, D. C., Montaño, I. L., Prieto, G. A., Pérez-Acosta, A. M. Validación del Body Shape Questionnaire (Cuestionario de la Figura Corporal) BSQ para la población colombiana. Acta Colombiana de Psicología. 10 (1), 15-23 (2015).
  40. Kapstad, H., Nelson, M., Øverås, M., Rø, &. #. 2. 1. 6. ;. Validation of the Norwegian short version of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-14). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 69 (7), 509-514 (2015).
  41. Kim, T. S., Chee, I. S. The reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Anxiety Mood. 14 (1), 36 (2018).
  42. Homan, K. J., Tylka, T. L. Development and exploration of the gratitude model of body appreciation in women. Body Image. 25, 14-22 (2018).
  43. Tylka, T. L., Homan, K. J. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating. BodyImage. 15, 90-97 (2015).
  44. Mellor, D., Connaughton, C., McCabe, M. P., Tatangelo, G. Better with age: A health promotion program for men at midlife. Psychology of Men and Masculinity. 18 (1), 40-49 (2017).
  45. Roses-Gómez, M. R. Desarrollo y evaluación de la eficacia de dos programas preventivos en comportamientos no saludables respecto al peso y la alimentación: Estudio piloto. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. , (2014).
  46. Fardouly, J., Diedrichs, P. C., Vartanian, L. R., Halliwell, E. The Mediating Role of Appearance Comparisons in the Relationship Between Media Usage and Self-Objectification in Young Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 39 (4), 447-457 (2015).
  47. Ridgway, J. L., Clayton, R. B. Instagram unfiltered: Exploring associations of body image satisfaction, Instagram# selfie posting, and negative romantic relationship outcomes. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 19 (1), 2-7 (2016).
  48. Raich, R. M. Una perspectiva desde la psicología de la salud de la imagen corporal. Avances En Psicología Latinoamericana. 22 (1), 15-27 (2004).
  49. Thompson, J. K. . Handbook of eating disorders and obesity. , (2004).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved