Published: March 10th, 2023
The present protocol describes how to use oil red O to dye lipid droplets (LDs), calculate the size and number of LDs in a fatty acid-induced fatty hepatocyte model, and use BODIPY 493/503 to observe the process of small LDs fusing into large LDs by live cell imaging.
Lipid droplets (LDs) are organelles that play an important role in lipid metabolism and neutral lipid storage in cells. They are associated with a variety of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, fatty liver disease, and diabetes. In hepatic cells, the sizes and numbers of LDs are signs of fatty liver disease. Moreover, the oxidative stress reaction, cell autophagy, and apoptosis are often accompanied by changes in the sizes and numbers of LDs. As a result, the dimensions and quantity of LDs are the basis of the current research regarding the mechanism of LD biogenesis. Here, in fatty acid-induced bovine hepatic cells, we describe how to use oil red O to stain LDs and to investigate the sizes and numbers of LDs. The size distribution of LDs is statistically analyzed. The process of small LDs fusing into large LDs is also observed by a live cell imaging system. The current work provides a way to directly observe the size change trend of LDs under different physiological conditions.
Lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hepatocytes is the typical characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which can progress to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been found that the earliest manifestation of fatty liver disease is steatosis, characterized by LD accumulation in the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte1. Liver steatosis is invariably associated with an increased number and/or expanded size of LDs2. LDs are thought to be generated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), consisting of triglyceride (TG) as the core, and are surrounded by proteins and phospholipids3
All procedures were approved and performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Animal Care Committee of Henan Agricultural University (Henan Province, China).
1. Bovine hepatocyte cell culture
The staining of cell LDs is shown in Figure 1. The red dots reflect cell LDs, and the blue dots reflect the nuclei. It can be seen that the size and number of LDs in each picture are different under the treatment of LA.
With the increase in LA dosage, the average diameter and number of LDs showed a significantly increasing trend, depending on LA concentration (Figure 2). As shown in Figure 2A, the number .......
Depending on the pathological states, hepatic LDs undergo tremendous changes in their size and number. LDs are widely present in hepatocyte cells and play a key role in liver health and disease18. The quantity and size of LDs are the basis of the current research on the biogenesis of LDs19. The size and number of LDs for cells and tissues reflect their ability to store and release energy. The dynamic changes of LDs maintain the stability of lipid metabolic activities
|cell counting chamber
|cell culture dish
|cell sens software
|Fetal Bovine Serum
|image analysis sodtware
|Live Cell Station
|Nikon A1 HD25
|oil red O
|Penicillin & Streptomycin 100×
|Phosphate Buffered Saline
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