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Materials

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Biochemistry

Identification of Peptides of Small Extracellular Vesicles from Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages

Published: June 30th, 2023

DOI:

10.3791/65521

1School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, 2State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, 3School of Life Sciences, Hebei University

This protocol describes a procedure to isolate small extracellular vesicles from macrophages by differential ultracentrifugation and extract the peptidome for identification by mass spectrometry.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are typically secreted by the exocytosis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). These nanovesicles with a diameter of <200 nm are present in various body fluids. These sEVs regulate various biological processes such as gene transcription and translation, cell proliferation and survival, immunity and inflammation through their cargos, such as proteins, DNA, RNA, and metabolites. Currently, various techniques have been developed for sEVs isolation. Among them, the ultracentrifugation-based method is considered the gold standard and is widely used for sEVs isolation. The peptides are naturally biomacromolecules with less than 50 amino acids in length. These peptides participate in a variety of biological processes with biological activity, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cell growth factors. The peptidome is intended to systematically analyze endogenous peptides in specific biological samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we introduced a protocol to isolate sEVs by differential ultracentrifugation and extracted peptidome for identification by LC-MS/MS. This method identified hundreds of sEVs-derived peptides from bone marrow-derived macrophages.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) with a diameter of less than 200 nm are present in almost all types of body fluids and secreted by all kinds of cells, including urine, sweat, tears, cerebrospinal fluid, and amniotic fluid1. Initially, sEVs were considered as receptacles for disposing of cellular waste, which led to minimal research in the subsequent decade2. Recently, increasing evidence indicates that sEVs contain specific proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and other metabolites. These molecules are transported to target cells3, contributing to intercellular communication, through which they pa....

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1. Isolation of small extracellular vesicles

NOTE: Perform all centrifugation in steps 1.1-1.11 at 4 °C.

  1. Preparation of sEVs-free fetal bovine serum (FBS): Centrifuge FBS overnight at 110,000 × g at 4 °C through an ultracentrifuge (see Table of Materials) to remove endogenous sEVs. Collect the supernatant, filter sterilize it with a 0.2 µm ultrafiltration membrane, and store it at -20 °C.
  2. Plate about 3 x .......

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For the sEVs isolated by differential ultracentrifugation (Figure 1), we evaluated their morphology, particle size distribution, and protein markers according to the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV)17.

First, the morphology of sEVs was observed by TEM, showing a typical cup-like structure (Figure 2A). NTA showed that isolated sEVs were mostly concentrated at 136 nm (F.......

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When investigating the function of sEVs, it is imperative to attain high-purity sEVs from complex biological samples to avoid any potential contaminations. A variety of methods for sEVs isolation have been developed13, and among these methods, differential ultracentrifugation-based methods have shown relatively high purity of sEVs. In this study, 200 mL of cell supernatant was collected for 6 h, and about 200-300 µg of sEVs were obtained by differential ultracentrifugation. However, it should.......

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This study was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (3157270). We thank Dr. Feng Shao (National Institute of Biological Sciences, China) for providing iBMDM.

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
BCA Protein Assay Kit Beyotime Technology P0012
CD9 Beyotime Technology AF1192
Centrifugal filter tube Millipore UFC5010BK
Centrifuge bottles polypropylene Beckman Coulter 357003 High-speed centrifuge
Chemiluminescent substrate Thermo Fisher Scientific 34580
Dithiothreitol Solarbio D8220 100 g
DMEM culture medium Cell World N?A
GRP94 Cell Signaling Technology 20292
High-speed centrifuge Beckman Coulter Avanti JXN-26 Centrifuge rotor (JA-25.50)
Immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDM) National Institute of Biological Sciences, China Provided by Dr. Feng Shao (National Institute of Biological Sciences, China)
Iodoacetamide Sigma l1149 5 g
Microfuge tube polypropylene Beckman Coulter 357448 1.5 mL, Tabletop ultracentrifuge 
nano-high-performance LC system Thermo Fisher Scientific EASY-nLC 1000
Nanoparticle tracking analysis  Malvern Panalytical NanoSight LM10 NanoSight NTA3.4
Orbitrap Q Exactive HF-X mass spectrometer Thermo Fisher Scientific N/A
Phosphate-buffered saline Solarbio P1020
Polyallomer centrifuge tubes Beckman Coulter 326823 Ultracentrifuge
Protease inhibitor Bimake B14002
SpeedVac vacuum concentrator Eppendorf Concentrator plus
Tabletop ultracentrifuge Beckman Coulter Optima MAX-XP Ultracentrifuge rotor (TLA 55)
Transmission electron microscope HITACHI H-7650B
TSG101 Sigma AF8258
Ultracentrifuge Beckman Coulter Optima XPN-100 Ultracentrifuge rotor (SW32 Ti)
Ultrasonic cell disruptor Scientz SCIENTZ-IID
Western Blot imager Bio-Rad ChemiDocXRs Image lab 4.0 (beta 7)
β-actin Sigma A3853

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