Given simple random samples of size n from a given population with a measured characteristic such as mean, proportion, or standard deviation for each sample, the probability distribution of all the measured characteristics is called a sampling distribution. How much the statistic varies from one sample to another is known as the sampling variability of a statistic. You typically measure the sampling variability of a statistic by its standard error. The standard error of the mean is an example of a standard error. It is a special standard deviation and is known as the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean.
This text is adapted from Openstax, Introductory Statistics, Section 2.7 Measures of Spread of Data
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