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Abstract

Protocol

Representative Results

Materials

Chemistry

Extraction

Published: Not Published

  1. Preparation of the Laboratory

    Here, we show the laboratory preparation for 10 students working in pairs, with some excess. Please adjust quantities as needed.

    • Put on a lab coat, splash-proof safety glasses, and nitrile gloves.
    • Place labeled containers for halogenated waste and solid reagent waste in a satellite waste hood. Place a glass waste container nearby.
    • Label a 20-mL vial as ‘unknown mixture’.
    • Measure out 0.5 g of cellulose and add it to the labeled vial. Measure out 4.75 g each of benzoic acid and caffeine and add them to the vial. Stir the solids well with a glass rod.
    • Tightly cap the vial and place it by the balances. Set a box of 90-mm circular filter paper by the balances. Make sure that the area has enough weighing boats, laboratory wipes, and clean spatulas.
    • Set out the following glassware and equipment at each student lab station (we suggest that students work in pairs):
       1    Lab stand with ring fixture
       1    Hotplate
       1    Vacuum pump (or house vacuum)
       1    Medium 3-prong clamp
       1    125-mL separatory funnel with a stopper
       1    125-mL Erlenmeyer flask
       3    10-mL glass graduated cylinders
       2    50-mL glass graduated cylinders
       2    50-mL beakers
       3    100-mL beakers
       1    600-mL beaker
       1    250-mL filter flask
       1    Büchner funnel
       2    60-mL glass funnels
       2    100-mm watch glasses
       2    Glass stirring rods
       2    24/40 rubber adapters
       2    Pasteur pipette bulbs
       2    Small spatulas
       1    Package of pH paper
       1    Roll of lab tape and pen
    • Distribute boxes of lab wipes and Pasteur pipettes around the lab so that each workstation has them nearby.
    • Set out anhydrous magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, vacuum grease, and several spatulas on a common bench.
    • Shortly before the lab, place labeled bottles of dichloromethane and 1 M NaOH in a fume hood.
    • Put a bottle of 3 M HCl in a separate fume hood to avoid inadvertent contact between acids and bases.

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What property is liquid-liquid extraction based on?

Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique based on the difference in solubility of a solute in two immiscible liquids.

What is immiscibility?

Immiscibility means that two liquids do not form a homogenous solution when mixed and partition into different phases.

In general, which phase .......

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  • Lab stand with ring fixture
    5
  • Stirring hotplate
    5
  • Vacuum pump (or house vacuum) with tubing
    5
  • Medium 3-prong clamp
    5
  • 125-mL glass separatory funnel with stopper
    5
  • 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask
    5
  • 10-mL glass graduated cylinder
    15
  • 50-mL glass graduated cylinder
    10
  • 50-mL glass beaker
    10
  • 100-mL glass beaker
    15
  • 600-mL glass beaker
    5
  • 250-mL glass filter flask
    5
  • Büchner funnel
    5
  • 60-mL glass funnel
    10
  • 100-mm watch glass
    10
  • Glass stirring rod
    10
  • 24/40 rubber adapters
    10
  • Pasteur pipette bulb
    10
  • Small spatula
    10
  • pH paper
    5 package
  • Lab tape and labeling pen
    5
  • Cellulose
    1 g
  • Benozic acid
    5 g
  • Caffeine
    5 g
  • Anhydrous magnesium sulfate
    20 g
  • Sodium bicarbonate
    50 g
  • 1 M sodium hydroxide
    300 mL
  • 3 M hydrochloric acid
    50 mL
  • Dichloromethane
    300 mL
  • 20-mL glass vial with solvent-resistant cap
    1
  • Powder funnel
    1
  • Pasteur pipettes
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • 90-mm filter paper
    1 box
  • Top-loading balance (at least 1)
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Weighing boats
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Spatulas
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Vacuum grease
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Lab wipes
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Deionized water
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Crushed ice
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Ice container (if no ice machine)
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Ice scoop (minimum 1)
    -1 Dependent on lab size

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