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Abstract

Protocol

Representative Results

Materials

Chemistry

Synthesis of Luminol

Published: Not Published

  1. Preparation of Solutions

    Here, we show the laboratory preparation for 10 students working in pairs, with some excess. Please adjust quantities as needed.

    • Before you get started, put on a lab coat, splash-proof safety glasses, and nitrile gloves. The chemicals that you will use are hazardous, so both solutions must be prepared and handled in a fume hood.
    • Prepare 10 mL of a 10% by volume solution of hydrazine in water. Measure 8.4 mL of deionized water and add it to a 30-mL beaker.
    • Measure 1.6 mL of hydrazine hydrate and pour it into the beaker for a total volume of 10 mL. Stir the hydrazine solution with a glass rod until it is well mixed. Note: Hydrazine is flammable, toxic, and explosive.
    • Pour the solution into a 20-mL glass bottle. Cap it and label it with the solution's name and concentration. Store the hydrazine hydrate and the hydrazine solution in a cabinet for flammables.
    • Prepare 20 mL of 2.8 to 3 M aqueous NaOH. Note: NaOH is highly corrosive. Avoid skin contact.
    • Measure 2.2 to 2.4 g of solid NaOH and add it to a 50-mL beaker. Add 20 mL of deionized water and stir the mixture on a stir plate until the NaOH has completely dissolved.
    • Pour the solution into a 20-mL glass bottle and close it with a lid. Label the bottle with the solution's name and approximate concentration. Store the NaOH pellets and solution in the appropriate cabinets.
    • Lastly, clean your glassware following your usual procedures.
  2. Preparation of the Laboratory
    • Before you set up the main lab, reserve a separate room that you can make as dark as possible.
    • Prepare a container for fluorescein waste and ensure that a glass waste container is available.
    • Set out a 10% sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solution and a 1 M sodium carbonate solution in the waste hood.
    • Fill a wash bottle with deionized water and place it in the same hood. Confirm that there are paper towels and a test tube brush by each sink in the main lab.
    • Bring containers of 3-nitrophthalic acid, anhydrous sodium dithionite, solid potassium hydroxide, and fluorescein to the balance area.
    • Confirm that there are enough laboratory wipes, spatulas, and weighing boats for the class.
    • Set triethylene glycol, the hydrazine solution, the NaOH solution, glacial acetic acid, and dimethyl sulfoxide in a central hood. Place a 1-mL graduated pipette and a pipette controller designated for hydrazine in the same hood.
    • Put Pasteur pipettes, filter papers, scissors, and plastic paraffin film in a central area.
    • Set out the following glassware and equipment at each student lab station (we suggest that students work in pairs):
       1    Stirring hotplate
       1    Bunsen burner with tubing
       2    Lab stands
       3    Clamps
       1    Pair of flask tongs
       4    10-mL graduated cylinders
       1    50-mL graduated cylinder
       3    25-mL Erlenmeyer flasks
       1    250-mL filter flask
       1    50-mL beaker
       2    250-mL beakers
       1    400-mL beaker
       1    600-mL beaker
       2    25-mL test tubes
       2    Büchner funnels
       1    Long glass stirring rod
       1    Medium stir bar
       2    Thermometers
       2    Spatulas
       6    Boiling chips
       1    Medium filter adapter
       1    Test tube stopper
       1    Small flask stopper
       1    Pair of tweezers
       1    Fire striker or lighter
       1    Roll of laboratory tape or labels
       2    Pipette bulbs
       1    Pen

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  • Stirring hotplate
    5
  • Bunsen burner with tubing and striker
    5
  • Lab Stand
    10
  • 3-prong clamp
    15
  • Insulated gloves or flask tongs
    5
  • 10-mL glass graduated cylinder
    20
  • 50-mL glass graduated cylinder
    5
  • 25-mL Erlenmeyer flask
    15
  • 250-mL glass filter flask
    5
  • 50-mL glass beaker
    5
  • 250-mL glass beaker
    10
  • 400-mL glass beaker
    5
  • 600-mL glass beaker
    5
  • 25-mL glass test tube
    10
  • Büchner funnel
    10
  • Long glass stirring rod
    5
  • Medium stir bar
    5
  • Thermometers
    10
  • Spatulas
    10
  • Boiling chips
    30
  • Medium filter adapter
    5
  • Test tube stopper
    5
  • Stopper for 25-mL Erlenmeyer flask
    5
  • Tweezers
    5
  • Laboratory tape
    5 rolls
  • Labeling pen or marker
    5
  • Pipette bulbs
    10
  • Circular filter paper (9-mm)
    10
  • Hydrazine hydrate (64% hydrazine)
    5 mL
  • Sodium hydroxide
    5 g
  • 3-nitrophthalic acid
    5 g
  • Triethylene glycol
    25 mL
  • Anhydrous sodium dithionite
    20 g
  • Glacial acetic acid
    15 mL
  • Potassium hydroxide
    5 g
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide
    20 mL
  • Fluorescein sodium salt
    2 g
  • 10 wt% sodium hypochlorite solution
    300 mL
  • 1 M sodium carbonate
    100 mL
  • 1-mL graduated pipette and pipette controller
    1
  • 10-mL glass graduated cylinder
    2
  • 50-mL glass graduated cylinder
    1
  • 30-mL glass beaker
    1
  • 50-mL glass beaker
    1
  • 20-mL glass bottle with cap
    2
  • Test tube brush
    2
  • 250-mL wash bottle filled with DI water
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Crushed ice
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Ice scoop
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Insulated ice cooler
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Analytical balance (at least 1)
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Weigh boats (at least 5 per group)
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Spatulas
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Lab wipes
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Deionized water
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Pasteur pipettes
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Paraffin film
    -1 Dependent on lab size
  • Scissors
    -1 Dependent on lab size

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