Published: January 28th, 2013
Here we describe an optimized technique to produce high-quality vitamin A/RBP complex and two real-time monitoring techniques to study vitamin A transport by STRA6, the RBP receptor.
Vitamin A is essential for vision and the growth/differentiation of almost all human organs. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) is the principle and specific carrier of vitamin A in the blood. Here we describe an optimized technique to produce and purify holo-RBP and two real-time monitoring techniques to study the transport of vitamin A by the high-affinity RBP receptor STRA6. The first technique makes it possible to produce a large quantity of high quality holo-RBP (100%-loaded with retinol) for vitamin A transport assays. High quality RBP is essential for functional assays because misfolded RBP releases vitamin A readily and bacterial contamination in RBP preparation can cause artifacts. Real-time monitoring techniques like electrophysiology have made critical contributions to the studies of membrane transport. The RBP receptor-mediated retinol transport has not been analyzed in real time until recently. The second technique described here is the real-time analysis of STRA6-catalyzed retinol release or loading. The third technique is real-time analysis of STRA6-catalyzed retinol transport from holo-RBP to cellular retinol binding protein I (CRBP-I). These techniques provide high sensitivity and resolution in revealing RBP receptor's vitamin A uptake mechanism.
Vitamin A is an organic molecule that is essential for human survival and the proper functioning of almost all human organs. Vitamin A derivatives (retinoids) participate in diverse biochemical and cellular events including the sensing of light for vision 1,2 and the regulation of gene expression and protein translation during embryonic development and in adult tissues 3-6. Although retinol has the ability to diffuse systemically, evolution came up with plasma retinol binding protein, a specific carrier protein for vitamin A transport in the blood to achieve high efficiency and specificity and to avoid toxicity associated with random diffusion
1. Production, Refolding, and HPLC Purification of Holo-RBP
We present here representative results for holo-RBP production and purification by HPLC (Figure 1), real-time analysis of STRA6-catalyzed retinol release from holo-RBP and retinol loading into apo-RBP (Figure 2) and real-time analysis of STRA6-catalyzed retinol transport from holo-RBP to EGFP-CRBP-I (Figure 3).
Without refolding, RBP produced in bacteria is almost completely misfolded due to the presence of many incorrect disulfide bonds. Ther.......
We share here an optimized RBP production protocol because RBP production and purification procedures are critical to generating correctly folded RBP. Given the possibility of misfolded RBP species and the presence of trace amounts of bacterial proteins even in HPLC purified bacteria-produced RBP, it is helpful to use native RBP from serum to confirm a conclusion related to RBP. Urine RBP, which is commercially available, is a complex mixture of many species of RBP including apo-RBP and holo-RBP 48,49.
|Name of Reagent/Material
|Amicon Ultra 15 concentrator (MWCO 10 K)
|Hamilton syringe Gastight #1710
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