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Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

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Medicine

Transcriptomic Analysis of Human Retinal Surgical Specimens Using jouRNAl

Published: August 14th, 2013

DOI:

10.3791/50375

1U968, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, 2UMR S 968, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 3UMR 7210, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 4Départment d'Ophtalmologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux

We used retinal samples from retinectomy for a transcriptomic analysis of retinal detachment. We developed a procedure that allows RNA conservation between the surgical blocks and the laboratory. We standardized a protocol to purify RNA by cesium chloride ultracentrifugation to assure that the purified RNAs are suitable for microarray analysis.

Retinal detachment (RD) describes a separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). The RPE is essential for normal function of the light sensitive neurons, the photoreceptors. Detachment of the retina from the RPE creates a physical gap that is filled with extracellular fluid. RD initiates cellular and molecular adverse events that affect both the neurosensory retina and the RPE since the physiological exchange of ions and metabolites is severely perturbed. The consequence for vision is related to the duration of the detachment since a rapid reapposition of the two tissues results in the restoration of vision 1. The treatment of RD is exclusively surgical. Removal of vitreous gel (vitrectomy) is followed by the removal non essential part of the retina around the detached area to favor retinal detachment. The removed retinal specimens are res nullius (nothing) and consequently normally discarded. To recover RNA from these surgical specimens, we developed the procedure jouRNAl that allows RNA conservation during the transfer from the surgical block to the laboratory. We also standardized a protocol to purify RNA by cesium chloride ultracentrifugation to assure that the purified RNAs are suitable for global gene expression analysis. The quality of the RNA was validated both by RT-PCR and microarray analysis. Analysis of the data shows a simultaneous involvement of inflammation and photoreceptor degeneration during RD.

The main therapeutic objective in retinal detachment (RD) is to find a way to limit photoreceptor cell damage and retinal inflammation resulting from the separation of the photoreceptors from the retinal pigmented epithelial cells. During RD, RPE cells are activated, migrate, dedifferentiate, and proliferate at the surface of the detached retina, exerting contractile forces leading to complications. Transcriptomics analysis of RD is a way to identify target genes with modified expression following RD and hence future therapeutic molecules that could improve final visual outcome in combination with surgery. It is well known ribonucleic acid (RNA) is not stable as is de....

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1. jouRNAl: Procedure to Recover the Specimens from the Surgical Block

In the lab

  1. Get an importation contract from express shipping company.
  2. Fill 10 (or 25) shipping forms with the postal address of the laboratory indicating the contact person in the laboratory (Phone number and Email address).
  3. Prepare 10 (or 25) samples forms numbered 1 to 10 (or 25). These forms include dedicated spaces to inform on a) anonymous identification of the patient, b) the date of the s.......

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The procedure jouRNAl (Figure 1) allows us recover specimens of retina from the surgical block to purified RNA, and to analyze the transcriptome of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment results in the upregulation of the monocyte chemotactic MCP1 gene CCL2, and in the decrease in expression of the rod photoreceptor transducing gene GNAT1, the short wave cone opsin OPN1SW, and the homeogene CRX (Figure 2). The induction of CCL2 is resultin.......

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The development of a procedure for tissue recovery from the surgical block has been essential to the transcriptome analysis of retinal detachment. One should notice that this type of surgery is practiced in emergency and that the ophthalmologists operating have little time to participate in a biological research program when they operate. This retinectomy is also performed stochastically in each service, so that the easier way to reach statistical numbers is to work with a network. In such network, the standardiza.......

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We thank Sacha Reichman and Dominique Santiard-Baron for their help in editing the RNA purification protocol.

....

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Name Company Catalogue number Comments (optional)
Centrifuge Beckman Coulter Aventi J-E
Rotor Beckman Coulter JS-5.3
Ultracentrifuge Beckman Coulter LE 80K
Rotor Beckman Coulter SW41
Power supply Biorad Pac 3000
PolytronTM Kinematica PT 2100 Supplied with PT-DA 2105:2
Agarose gel electrophoresis device Biorad MiniGel Cell GT
Imaging System Biorad GelDoc-It Imager
5 ml sterile polyethylene tube Greiner 115261
Sterile polyallomer centrifuge tube Beckman Coulter 331372
Chemical reagents Sigma Molecular biology grade (RNase and DNase free products)
Cleaning Solution VWR RBS
Microarray chip Affymetrix Human U133 plus 2 array

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