JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In





Representative Results






Intracerebroventricular and Intravascular Injection of Viral Particles and Fluorescent Microbeads into the Neonatal Brain

Published: July 24th, 2016



1Department of Regenerative & Infectious Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 2First Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 3Faculty of Health Science, Tokoha University

Here, we describe a simple method of intracerebroventricular and intravascular injection of viral particles or fluorescent microbeads into the neonatal mouse brain. The localization pattern of the virus and nanoparticles could be detected by microscopic evaluation or by in situ hybridization.

In the study on the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis, the infection method is critical. The first of the two main infectious routes to the brain is the hematogenous route, which involves infection of the endothelial cells and pericytes of the brain. The second is the intracerebroventricular (ICV) route. Once within the central nervous system (CNS), viruses may spread to the subarachnoid space, meninges, and choroid plexus via the cerebrospinal fluid. In experimental models, the earliest stages of CNS viral distribution are not well characterized, and it is unclear whether only certain cells are initially infected. Here, we have analyzed the distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) particles during the acute phase of infection, termed primary viremia, following ICV or intravascular (IV) injection into the neonatal mouse brain. In the ICV injection model, 5 µl of murine CMV (MCMV) or fluorescent microbeads were injected into the lateral ventricle at the midpoint between the ear and eye using a 10-µl syringe with a 27 G needle. In the IV injection model, a 1-ml syringe with a 35 G needle was used. A transilluminator was used to visualize the superficial temporal (facial) vein of the neonatal mouse. We infused 50 µl of MCMV or fluorescent microbeads into the superficial temporal vein. Brains were harvested at different time points post-injection. MCMV genomes were detected using the in situ hybridization method. Fluorescent microbeads or green fluorescent protein expressing recombinant MCMV particles were observed by fluorescent microscopy. These techniques can be applied to many other pathogens to investigate the pathogenesis of encephalitis.

When studying viral encephalitis, the initial distribution of viral particles is very important to understand disease pathogenesis and to identify viral targets in the brain. Most viruses range in size from 20 to 300 nm, although the Pandoravirus is more than 700 nm in size1. The distribution of the viral particles in the acute phase of infection may depend on the size of the particles, the distribution of cellular receptors, or the affinity of the cellular receptors for viruses. In animal models, intracerebroventricular (ICV), intraperitoneal, direct placental, and intravenous (IV) infections have been used to study the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. ....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

All the experimental protocols were approved by the Animal Care Committee of Hamamatsu University of School of Medicine.

1. Preparation of MCMV (Smith strain) and Recombinant M32-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP)-MCMV

  1. Generate recombinant M32-EGFP-MCMV according to the method as follows (1.2 - 1.9) and as previously described8.
  2. Use recombinant viruses derived from the Smith strain of wild-type MCMV (accession number: U68299). Insert EGFP (4,361 base pai.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

In studies on the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis, the infection method is important. The hematogenous route represents an acute infection of the endothelial cells and pericytes of the brain, while the ICV route represents an acute infection spreading via the CSF through the subarachnoid space, reaching to the meninges and choroid plexus. To analyze the first distribution of particles in acute encephalitis, in situ hybridization detecting the MCMV genomes and direct observatio.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

In animal models, ICV, intraperitoneal, direct placental, and IV infections have been used to study the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. We focused on the ICV and IV injection models of neonatal mice for the simplicity of the procedures and the benefit of direct injection of particles into the target region. Although intraperitoneal infection is an easy method, viral particles spread systemically via an indirect process5,24. Direct placental infection is a good method to study embryonic systemic infection. .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The authors thank Mr. Masaaki Kaneta, Ms. Hiromi Suzuki, and Ms. Mitsue Kawashima (Department of Regenerative and Infectious Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) for their excellent technical assistance. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI Grant Number 23590445.


Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Tris; tris(hydroxymethyl)- aminomethane Sigma-Aldrich T-6791
HCl Sigma-Aldrich H-1758
pEGFP-N1 vector  Clontech #6085-1
D-sorbitol Sigma-Aldrich S-1876
SPHERO TM Fluorescent Polystyrene Nile Red 0.04-0.06 Spherotech, Inc. FP-00556-2
SPHERO TM Fluorescent Polystyrene Nile Red 0.1-0.3 Spherotech, Inc. FP-0256-2
SPHERO TM Fluorescent Polystyrene Nile Red 1.7-2.2 Spherotech, inc.  FP-2056-2
10% mouse serum DAKO  X0910
C57BL/6 mouse SLC, Inc.
ICR mouse SLC, Inc.
Modified Microliter Syringes (7000 Series) Hamilton company
35-gauge needle Saito Medical
A Wee Sight Transilluminator Phillips Healthcare 1017920
O.C.T.Compound Sakura Finetek 4583
RNase A Sigma-Aldrich R4642
Nonidet(R) P-40 Nacalai 25223-04
citrate buffer (pH6) x10 Sigma-Aldrich C9999-100ml
pepsin Sigma-Aldrich P6887
EDTA dojindo N001
Formamide TCI F0045
Dextran sulfate sodium salt Sigma-Aldrich 42867-5G
Denhardt's Solution (50X) ThermoFishcer sceintific 750018
Yeast tRNA (10 mg/mL) ThermoFishcer sceintific AM7119
SSC x20 Sigma-Aldrich S6639
DAPI ThermoFishcer sceintific D1306
n-Hexane Sigma-Aldrich 296090
superfrost plus glass ThermoFishcer sceintific 12-55-18
Cytokeep II Nippon Shoji Co.
FITC-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 Vector laboratories, Inc. L1104
Anti-Mouse CD31 (PECAM-1) PE ebioscience 12-0311
ProLong  Gold ThermoFishcer sceintific P36934

  1. Philippe, N., et al. Pandoraviruses: amoeba viruses with genomes up to 2.5 Mb reaching that of parasitic eukaryotes. Science. 341 (6143), 281-286 (2013).
  2. Passini, M. A., et al. Intraventricular brain injection of adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) in neonatal mice results in complementary patterns of neuronal transduction to AAV2 and total long-term correction of storage lesions in the brains of beta-glucuronidase-deficient mice. J Virol. 77 (12), 7034-7040 (2003).
  3. Kim, J. Y., et al. Viral transduction of the neonatal brain delivers controllable genetic mosaicism for visualising and manipulating neuronal circuits in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 37 (8), 1203-1220 (2013).
  4. McLean, J. R., et al. Widespread neuron-specific transgene expression in brain and spinal cord following synapsin promoter-driven AAV9 neonatal intracerebroventricular injection. Neurosci Lett. 576, 73-78 (2014).
  5. Hsu, K. M., Pratt, J. R., Akers, W. J., Achilefu, S. I., Yokoyama, W. M. Murine cytomegalovirus displays selective infection of cells within hours after systemic administration. J Gen Virol. 90. 90 (Pt 1), 33-43 (2009).
  6. Sakao-Suzuki, M., et al. Aberrant fetal macrophage/microglial reactions to cytomegalovirus infection. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neruology. 1 (8), 570-588 (2014).
  7. Gombash Lampe, S. E., Kaspar, B. K., Foust, K. D. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice. J Vis Exp. (93), e52037 (2014).
  8. Kawasaki, H., et al. Cytomegalovirus initiates infection selectively from high-level beta1 integrin-expressing cells in the brain. Am J Pathol. 185 (5), 1304-1323 (2015).
  9. Rahim, A. A., et al. Intravenous administration of AAV2/9 to the fetal and neonatal mouse leads to differential targeting of CNS cell types and extensive transduction of the nervous system. FASEB J. 25 (10), 3505-3518 (2011).
  10. Cannon, M. J., Davis, K. F. Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic. Bmc Public Health. 5, (2005).
  11. Frenkel, L. D., Keys, M. P., Hefferen, S. J., Rola-Pleszczynski, M., Bellanti, J. A. Unusual eye abnormalities associated with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics. 66 (5), 763-766 (1980).
  12. Becroft, D. M. Prenatal cytomegalovirus infection: epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis. Perspect Pediatr Pathol. 6, 203-241 (1981).
  13. Conboy, T. J., et al. Intellectual development in school-aged children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics. 77 (6), 801-806 (1986).
  14. Fowler, K. B., et al. The outcome of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in relation to maternal antibody status. N Engl J Med. 326 (10), 663-667 (1992).
  15. Cannon, M. J. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) epidemiology and awareness. J Clin Virol. 46 Suppl 4, S6-S10 (2009).
  16. Grassi, M. P., et al. Microglial nodular encephalitis and ventriculoencephalitis due to cytomegalovirus infection in patients with AIDS: two distinct clinical patterns. Clin Infect Dis. 27 (3), 504-508 (1998).
  17. Kawasaki, H., Mocarski, E. S., Kosugi, I., Tsutsui, Y. Cyclosporine inhibits mouse cytomegalovirus infection via a cyclophilin-dependent pathway specifically in neural stem/progenitor cells. J Virol. 81 (17), 9013-9023 (2007).
  18. Britt, W. J. Human cytomegalovirus: propagation, quantification, and storage. Curr Protoc Microbiol. Chapter 14, Unit 14E 13 (2010).
  19. Kawasaki, H., Kosugi, I., Arai, Y., Iwashita, T., Tsutsui, Y. Mouse embryonic stem cells inhibit murine cytomegalovirus infection through a multi-step process. PLoS One. 6 (3), e17492 (2011).
  20. Gage, G. J., Kipke, D. R., Shain, W. Whole animal perfusion fixation for rodents. J Vis Exp. (65), (2012).
  21. Fischer, A. H., Jacobson, K. A., Rose, J., Zeller, R. Cutting sections of paraffin-embedded tissues. CSH Protoc. , (2008).
  22. Chi, V., Chandy, K. G. Immunohistochemistry: paraffin sections using the Vectastain ABC kit from vector labs. J Vis Exp. (8), e308 (2007).
  23. Wilsbacher, L. D., Coughlin, S. R. Analysis of cardiomyocyte development using immunofluorescence in embryonic mouse heart. J Vis Exp. (97), (2015).
  24. Ohshima, M., et al. Intraperitoneal and intravenous deliveries are not comparable in terms of drug efficacy and cell distribution in neonatal mice with hypoxia-ischemia. Brain Dev. 37 (4), 376-386 (2015).
  25. Kim, J. Y., Grunke, S. D., Levites, Y., Golde, T. E., Jankowsky, J. L. Intracerebroventricular viral injection of the neonatal mouse brain for persistent and widespread neuronal transduction. J Vis Exp. (91), e51863 (2014).
  26. Glascock, J. J., et al. Delivery of therapeutic agents through intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intravenous (IV) injection in mice. J Vis Exp. (56), (2011).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo


Terms of Use





Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved