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Neuroscience

Analysis of Brain Mitochondria Using Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy

Published: July 9th, 2016

DOI:

10.3791/54214

1Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2Renovo Neural Incorporated

Mitochondrial visualization and analysis from mammalian brain tissue is a challenging task. Here, we describe how three dimensional (3D) reconstruction analysis from the serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) can be used to gain insights on the morphological and volumetric analysis of this critical energy generating organelle.

Human brain is a high energy consuming organ that mainly relies on glucose as a fuel source. Glucose is catabolized by brain mitochondria via glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathways to produce cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Impairment of mitochondrial ATP production causes mitochondrial disorders, which present clinically with prominent neurological and myopathic symptoms. Mitochondrial defects are also present in neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism spectrum disorder) and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases). Thus, there is an increased interest in the field for performing 3D analysis of mitochondrial morphology, structure and distribution under both healthy and disease states. The brain mitochondrial morphology is extremely diverse, with some mitochondria especially those in the synaptic region being in the range of <200 nm diameter, which is below the resolution limit of traditional light microscopy. Expressing a mitochondrially-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the brain significantly enhances the organellar detection by confocal microscopy. However, it does not overcome the constraints on the sensitivity of detection of relatively small sized mitochondria without oversaturating the images of large sized mitochondria. While serial transmission electron microscopy has been successfully used to characterize mitochondria at the neuronal synapse, this technique is extremely time-consuming especially when comparing multiple samples. The serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) technique involves an automated process of sectioning, imaging blocks of tissue and data acquisition. Here, we provide a protocol to perform SBFSEM of a defined region from rodent brain to rapidly reconstruct and visualize mitochondrial morphology. This technique could also be used to provide accurate information on mitochondrial number, volume, size and distribution in a defined brain region. Since the obtained image resolution is high (typically under 10 nm) any gross mitochondrial morphological defects may also be detected.

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles which change their shape and location depending on the cellular cues and needs, in tight interaction with cell cytoskeleton, and in response to cellular events such as calcium currents in neurons 1. Mitochondria also interact with other cellular organelles e.g. endoplasmic reticulum, which in turn regulates their dynamics and metabolism2. Mitochondrial morphology shows heterogeneity in different cell types i.e. the shape of the organelle varies from tubular to that consisting of sheets, sacks and ovals 3. It has been shown that mitochondrial fusion and fission cycle proteins can reg....

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Ethics Statement: Procedures involving animal subjects have been approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Virginia Tech.

Caution: Extreme precautions must be taken when handling and disposing several components used in this protocol. Before use, the local institutional guidelines and health and safety practices must be established and followed, particularly for osmium tetroxide, which is volatile and extremely poisonous, uranyl acetate, which is both a heavy metal and source of radioactivity, and lead nit.......

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We demonstrate that the brain mitochondrial morphology and size is heterogeneous in different neuronal sub-compartments. Confocal microscopy on low density neuronal cultures transduced with lentivirus expressing mitochondrially-targeted green fluorescent protein showed that mitochondria residing in neuronal soma form a reticular network, whereas those residing in distal neurites exhibit a discrete elongated morphology (Figure 1 A-B). Using the SBFSEM technique, the mitoch.......

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The complexity of the nervous system poses a significant challenge in reconstructing large tissue volumes and analyzing the morphology and distribution of organelles such as mitochondria with adequate resolution. Multiple cells including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with numerous processes extended in three dimensions interact within the brain tissue 43. Since mitochondria resides both in the soma of cells and distant processes, mitochondrial morphology is extremely pleomorphic in the nervous syste.......

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We thank Sidney Walker for providing technical help. This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Institute of Health (1R01EY024712-01A1).

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
C57BL/6J mice Jackson laboratory  664
Isoflurane VETone, tradename Fluriso 501017
Dissection tray Fisher scientific  S65105 
Dissection scissors Ted Pella Inc. 1316
Butterfly canula Exel International 26704
Phosphate buffer saline Sigma-Aldrich P4417-100TAB
Filter (0.45 micron) EMD Millipore NC0813356
Dissection microscope Olympus SZ61
Vibratome sectioning system Ted Pella Inc. Vibratome 3000
Sodium Cacodylate EMS 12300
Tannic Acid EMS 21700
Potassium Ferrocyanide J.T. Baker 14459-95-1
Osmium Tetroxide 4% Solution EMS 19150
Thiocarbohydrazide EMS 21900
L-Aspartic Acid Sigma-Aldrich A93100
Potassium Hydroxide Acros Organics 43731000
Lead Nitrate EMS 17900
EMbed-812 EMBEDDING KIT EMS 14120 Contains Embed 812  resin, DDSA, NMA, and DMP-30.
Glutaraldehyde 25% EM Grade Polysciences Inc. 1909
Paraformaldehyde EMS 19202
Uranyl Acetate EMS 22400
Ethanol EMS 15055
Propylene Oxide EMS 20400
Embedding Mold EMS 70907
Aluminum specimen pin EMS 70446
Colloidal Silver Liquid EMS 12630
Razor EMS 72000
Super Glue (Loctite Gel Control) Loctite 234790 Hardware/craft stores carry this item
Conductive epoxy Ted Pella Inc. 16043
Scanning electron microscope Zeiss Sigma VP
In chamber ultramicrotome for SEM Gatan Inc. 3View2 Can be designed for other SEMs
Trimming microscope for pin preparation Gatan Inc. supplied as part of 3View system
Low kV backscattered electron detector Gatan Inc. 3V-BSED
ImageJ/ Fiji processing package  ImageJ ver 1.50b, FIJI download Oct 1, 2015 http://zoi.utia.cas.cz/files/imagej_api.pdf
http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/
http://www.icmr.ucsb.edu/programs/3DWorkshop/Uchic-2015_FIJI_Tutorial.pdf
http://fiji.sc/TrakEM2

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