JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Developmental Biology

Observing Mitotic Division and Dynamics in a Live Zebrafish Embryo

Published: July 15th, 2016

DOI:

10.3791/54218

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Mitosis is critical to every living organism and defects often lead to cancer and developmental disorders. Using this imaging protocol and zebrafish as a model system, researchers can visualize mitosis in a live vertebrate organism and the multitude of defects that arise when mitotic processes are defective.

Mitosis is critical for organismal growth and differentiation. The process is highly dynamic and requires ordered events to accomplish proper chromatin condensation, microtubule-kinetochore attachment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis in a small time frame. Errors in the delicate process can result in human disease, including birth defects and cancer. Traditional approaches investigating human mitotic disease states often rely on cell culture systems, which lack the natural physiology and developmental/tissue-specific context advantageous when studying human disease. This protocol overcomes many obstacles by providing a way to visualize, with high resolution, chromosome dynamics in a vertebrate system, the zebrafish. This protocol will detail an approach that can be used to obtain dynamic images of dividing cells, which include: in vitro transcription, zebrafish breeding/collecting, embryo embedding, and time-lapse imaging. Optimization and modifications of this protocol are also explored. Using H2A.F/Z-EGFP (labels chromatin) and mCherry-CAAX (labels cell membrane) mRNA-injected embryos, mitosis in AB wild-type, auroraBhi1045, and esco2hi2865 mutant zebrafish is visualized. High resolution live imaging in zebrafish allows one to observe multiple mitoses to statistically quantify mitotic defects and timing of mitotic progression. In addition, observation of qualitative aspects that define improper mitotic processes (i.e., congression defects, missegregation of chromosomes, etc.) and improper chromosomal outcomes (i.e., aneuploidy, polyploidy, micronuclei, etc.) are observed. This assay can be applied to the observation of tissue differentiation/development and is amenable to the use of mutant zebrafish and pharmacological agents. Visualization of how defects in mitosis lead to cancer and developmental disorders will greatly enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of disease.

Mitosis is a critical cellular process essential for growth, differentiation, and regeneration in a living organism. Upon accurate preparation and replication of DNA in interphase, the cell is primed to divide. The first phase of mitosis, prophase, is initiated by activation of cyclin B/Cdk1. Prophase is characterized by condensation of chromatin material into chromosomes. Nuclear envelope breakdown occurs at the transition between prophase and prometaphase. In prometaphase, centrosomes, the nucleating center for spindle formation, begin to migrate to opposite poles while extending microtubules in search of kinetochore attachment. Upon attachment, conversions to end-o....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. In Vitro Transcription

  1. Linearize pCS2-H2A.F/Z-EGFP and/or pCS2-mCherry-CAAX vectors by NotI restriction enzyme digest31. Using an RNA in vitro transcription kit, generate 5' capped mRNA products from each template, according to manufacturer's protocol.
  2. Purify the capped mRNA using a purification kit. Follow manufacturer's instructions. Elute with RNase-free H2O.
  3. Determine the concentration of RNA by absorbance at 260 nm using a spectro.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Figure 2 demonstrates the ability to observe many cell divisions using a wide field view of an AB wild-type zebrafish tail. Over seven mitotic cells are imaged in a 14 min time frame (Movie 1). Within the two hr time-course, over 40 mitotic events were captured. On average, 50 dividing cells were observed in the AB and 30 dividing cells in aurBm/m embryos (Figure 2B). To account for the number of cells imaged,.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Use of this method allows one to infer nuclear envelope breakdown, formation of a metaphase plate by microtubule-kinetochore attachments, and segregation of sister chromatids to form two new cells in vivo and in a time-dependent manner. The ability to observe mitosis in zebrafish is advantageous over fixed samples and cell culture systems because the cells are being imaged in the natural physiology, the tissue is transparent which allows for fluorescent proteins to be used, they develop relatively fast, and time.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

We thank Kristen Kwan for the pCS2-H2A.F/Z-EGFP and pCS2-mCherry-CAAX vectors. We thank Chris Rodesch for tutoring us in live imaging in zebrafish. We thank Shawn Williams, Erik Malarkey and Brad Yoder for assistance in confocal imaging at UAB and the High Resolution Imaging Facility at UAB. The High Resolution Imaging Facility is supported by the UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center Support Grant (P30CA013148) and the Rheumatic Disease Core Center (P30 AR048311). J.M.P. is supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke (NIH R21 NS092105), and pilot grants from American Cancer Society (ACS IRG-60-001-53-IRG) and the UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center (....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
pCS2 vectors Gift from K. Kwan For plasmid of interest
NotI-HF restriction enzyme New England BioLabs R3189S For restriction digest of plasmid
mMessage SP6 kit Life Technologies AM1340 For in vitro transcription
RNeasy Mini kit Qiagen 74104 For purifying mRNA
100 x 15 mm petri dishes Fisher Scientific FB0875712 For housing embryos
microinjection mold homemade For holding embryos during microinjection
Agarose II Amresco 0815-25G For embedding embryos
Tricaine Sigma-Aldrich E10521-10G For anesthetizing embryos
Sodium Chloride Sigma-Aldrich S9888 For embryo water (E3 Blue), dissolved in UltraPure H2O
Potassium Chloride Sigma-Aldrich P3911 For embryo water (E3 Blue), dissolved in UltraPure H2O
Calcium Chloride Dihydrate Sigma-Aldrich C8106 For embryo water (E3 Blue), dissolved in UltraPure H2O
Magnesium Sulfate Fisher Scientific M7506 For embryo water (E3 Blue), dissolved in UltraPure H2O
Methylene Blue Hydrate Sigma-Aldrich MB1 For embryo water (E3 Blue), dissolved in UltraPure H2O
100 mm culture tube Fisher Scientific 50-819-812 For melted agar
35 mm glass coverslip bottom culture dish  MatTek Corp P35G-0-20-C  No. 0, 20 mm glass, For embedding embryos
#5 tweezers Dumont 72701-D For dechorionating embryos
21G 1 1/2 gauge needle  Becton Dickinson 305167 For positioning embryos in agar
Dissecting microscope Nikon AZ100 For screening and embedding embryos, any dissecting scope will do
Confocal microscope Nikon A1+ For time-lapse imaging
Confocal software NIS Elements AR 4.13.00 For image acquisition and processing

  1. Musacchio, A., Hardwick, K. G. The spindle checkpoint: structural insights into dynamic signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 3 (10), 731-741 (2002).
  2. Li, X., Nicklas, R. B. Mitotic forces control a cell-cycle checkpoint. Nature. 373 (6515), 630-632 (1995).
  3. Rieder, C. L., Cole, R. W., Khodjakov, A., Sluder, G. The checkpoint delaying anaphase in response to chromosome monoorientation is mediated by an inhibitory signal produced by unattached kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 130 (4), 941-948 (1995).
  4. Hayles, J., Nurse, P. A review of mitosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Exp Cell Res. 184 (2), 273-286 (1989).
  5. Pederson, T. Historical review: an energy reservoir for mitosis, and its productive wake. Trends Biochem Sci. 28 (3), 125-129 (2003).
  6. Sobel, S. G. Mini review: mitosis and the spindle pole body in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Exp Zool. 277 (2), 120-138 (1997).
  7. Thompson, S. L., Compton, D. A. Chromosome missegregation in human cells arises through specific types of kinetochore-microtubule attachment errors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108 (44), 17974-17978 (2011).
  8. Duijf, P. H., Benezra, R. The cancer biology of whole-chromosome instability. Oncogene. 32 (40), 4727-4736 (2013).
  9. Lara-Gonzalez, P., Taylor, S. S. Cohesion fatigue explains why pharmacological inhibition of the APC/C induces a spindle checkpoint-dependent mitotic arrest. PLoS One. 7 (11), 49041 (2012).
  10. Araujo, A., Baum, B., Bentley, P. The role of chromosome missegregation in cancer development: a theoretical approach using agent-based modelling. PLoS One. 8 (8), 72206 (2013).
  11. Deardorff, M. A., et al. HDAC8 mutations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome affect the cohesin acetylation cycle. Nature. 489 (7415), 313-317 (2012).
  12. Chetaille, P., et al. Mutations in SGOL1 cause a novel cohesinopathy affecting heart and gut rhythm. Nat Genet. 46 (11), 1245-1249 (2014).
  13. Kaiser, F. J., et al. Loss-of-function HDAC8 mutations cause a phenotypic spectrum of Cornelia de Lange syndrome-like features, ocular hypertelorism, large fontanelle and X-linked inheritance. Hum Mol Genet. 23 (11), 2888-2900 (2014).
  14. Snape, K., et al. Mutations in CEP57 cause mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. Nat Genet. 43 (6), 527-529 (2011).
  15. Suijkerbuijk, S. J., et al. Molecular causes for BUBR1 dysfunction in the human cancer predisposition syndrome mosaic variegated aneuploidy. Cancer Res. 70 (12), 4891-4900 (2010).
  16. Vega, H., et al. Roberts syndrome is caused by mutations in ESCO2, a human homolog of yeast ECO1 that is essential for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Nat Genet. 37 (5), 468-470 (2005).
  17. Andrews, P. D., Harper, I. S., Swedlow, J. R. To 5D and beyond: quantitative fluorescence microscopy in the postgenomic era. Traffic. 3 (1), 29-36 (2002).
  18. Nigg, E. A. Mitotic kinases as regulators of cell division and its checkpoints. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2 (1), 21-32 (2001).
  19. Carlton, J. G., Caballe, A., Agromayor, M., Kloc, M., Martin-Serrano, J. ESCRT-III governs the Aurora B-mediated abscission checkpoint through CHMP4C. Science. 336 (6078), 220-225 (2012).
  20. Yabe, T., et al. The maternal-effect gene cellular island encodes aurora B kinase and is essential for furrow formation in the early zebrafish embryo. PLoS Genet. 5 (6), 1000518 (2009).
  21. Hou, F., Zou, H. Two human orthologues of Eco1/Ctf7 acetyltransferases are both required for proper sister-chromatid cohesion. Mol Biol Cell. 16 (8), 3908-3918 (2005).
  22. Ivanov, D., et al. Eco1 is a novel acetyltransferase that can acetylate proteins involved in cohesion. Curr Biol. 12 (4), 323-328 (2002).
  23. Beckouet, F., et al. An Smc3 acetylation cycle is essential for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Mol Cell. 39 (5), 689-699 (2010).
  24. Monnich, M., Kuriger, Z., Print, C. G., Horsfield, J. A. A zebrafish model of Roberts syndrome reveals that Esco2 depletion interferes with development by disrupting the cell cycle. PLoS One. 6 (5), 20051 (2011).
  25. Percival, S. M., et al. Variations in dysfunction of sister chromatid cohesion in esco2 mutant zebrafish reflect the phenotypic diversity of Roberts syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 8 (8), 941-955 (2015).
  26. Amsterdam, A., Hopkins, N. Retroviral-mediated insertional mutagenesis in zebrafish. Methods Cell Biol. 77, 3-20 (2004).
  27. Amsterdam, A., et al. Identification of 315 genes essential for early zebrafish development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101 (35), 12792-12797 (2004).
  28. Jeon, H. Y., Lee, H. Depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish causes growth retardation due to mitotic delay and p53-dependent cell death. FEBS J. 280 (6), 1518-1530 (2013).
  29. Jeong, K., Jeong, J. Y., Lee, H. O., Choi, E., Lee, H. Inhibition of Plk1 induces mitotic infidelity and embryonic growth defects in developing zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 345 (1), 34-48 (2010).
  30. Bonenfant, D., Coulot, M., Towbin, H., Schindler, P., van Oostrum, J. Characterization of histone H2A and H2B variants and their post-translational modifications by mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 5 (3), 541-552 (2006).
  31. Kwan, K. M., et al. A complex choreography of cell movements shapes the vertebrate eye. Development. 139 (2), 359-372 (2012).
  32. Pilaz, L. J., Silver, D. L. Live imaging of mitosis in the developing mouse embryonic cortex. J Vis Exp. (88), (2014).
  33. Davidson, G., et al. Casein kinase 1 gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction. Nature. 438 (7069), 867-872 (2005).
  34. Smith, R. M., et al. Exocytotic insertion of calcium channels constrains compensatory endocytosis to sites of exocytosis. J Cell Biol. 148 (4), 755-767 (2000).
  35. Reid, T. S., Terry, K. L., Casey, P. J., Beese, L. S. Crystallographic analysis of CaaX prenyltransferases complexed with substrates defines rules of protein substrate selectivity. J Mol Biol. 343 (2), 417-433 (2004).
  36. Gerlach, G. F., Morales, E. E., Wingert, R. A. Microbead Implantation in the Zebrafish Embryo. J Vis Exp. (101), e52943 (2015).
  37. Porazinski, S. R., Wang, H., Furutani-Seiki, M. Microinjection of medaka embryos for use as a model genetic organism. J Vis Exp. (46), (2010).
  38. Rosen, J. N., Sweeney, M. F., Mably, J. D. Microinjection of zebrafish embryos to analyze gene function. J Vis Exp. (25), (2009).
  39. Sugiyama, M., et al. Illuminating cell-cycle progression in the developing zebrafish embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (49), 20812-20817 (2009).
  40. Ariga, J., Walker, S. L., Mumm, J. S. Multicolor time-lapse imaging of transgenic zebrafish: visualizing retinal stem cells activated by targeted neuronal cell ablation. J Vis Exp. (43), (2010).
  41. O'Brien, G. S., et al. Two-photon axotomy and time-lapse confocal imaging in live zebrafish embryos. J Vis Exp. (24), (2009).
  42. Maiato, H., Logarinho, E. Mitotic spindle multipolarity without centrosome amplification. Nat Cell Biol. 16 (5), 386-394 (2014).
  43. Gorbsky, G. J. Cohesion fatigue. Curr Biol. 23 (22), 986-988 (2013).
  44. Daum, J. R., et al. Cohesion fatigue induces chromatid separation in cells delayed at metaphase. Curr Biol. 21 (12), 1018-1024 (2011).
  45. Germann, S. M., et al. TopBP1/Dpb11 binds DNA anaphase bridges to prevent genome instability. J Cell Biol. 204 (1), 45-59 (2014).
  46. Chan, K. L., North, P. S., Hickson, I. D. BLM is required for faithful chromosome segregation and its localization defines a class of ultrafine anaphase bridges. EMBO J. 26 (14), 3397-3409 (2007).
  47. Wuhr, M., Obholzer, N. D., Megason, S. G., Detrich, H. W., Mitchison 3rd, ., J, T. Live imaging of the cytoskeleton in early cleavage-stage zebrafish embryos. Methods Cell Biol. 101, 1-18 (2011).
  48. Rogers, S. L., Rogers, G. C., Sharp, D. J., Vale, R. D. Drosophila EB1 is important for proper assembly, dynamics, and positioning of the mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 158 (5), 873-884 (2002).
  49. Gascoigne, K. E., Cheeseman, I. M. CDK-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion coordinately control kinetochore assembly state. J Cell Biol. 201 (1), 23-32 (2013).
  50. Scott, E. S., O'Hare, P. Fate of the inner nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor and nuclear lamins in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 75 (18), 8818-8830 (2001).
  51. Shankaran, S. S., Mackay, D. R., Ullman, K. S. A time-lapse imaging assay to study nuclear envelope breakdown. Methods Mol Biol. 931, 111-122 (2013).
  52. Jao, L. E., Wente, S. R., Chen, W. Efficient multiplex biallelic zebrafish genome editing using a CRISPR nuclease system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110 (34), 13904-13909 (2013).
  53. Irion, U., Krauss, J., Nusslein-Volhard, C. Precise and efficient genome editing in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Development. 141 (24), 4827-4830 (2014).
  54. Hwang, W. Y., et al. Efficient genome editing in zebrafish using a CRISPR-Cas system. Nat Biotechnol. 31 (3), 227-229 (2013).
  55. Hruscha, A., et al. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with low off-target effects in zebrafish. Development. 140 (24), 4982-4987 (2013).
  56. Thomas, H. R., Percival, S. M., Yoder, B. K., Parant, J. M. High-throughput genome editing and phenotyping facilitated by high resolution melting curve analysis. PLoS One. 9 (12), 114632 (2014).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved