Immunology and Infection
Published: August 26th, 2016
We describe an experimental setup to visualize with unprecedented high resolution phagosome formation and closure in three dimensions in living macrophages, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. It allows monitoring of the base of the phagocytic cup, the extending pseudopods, as well as the precise site of phagosome scission.
Phagocytosis is a mechanism used by specialized cells to internalize and eliminate microorganisms or cellular debris. It relies on profound rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton that is the driving force for plasma membrane extension around the particle. In addition, efficient engulfment of large material relies on focal exocytosis of intracellular compartments. This process is highly dynamic and numerous molecular players have been described to have a role during phagocytic cup formation. The precise regulation in time and space of all of these molecules, however, remains elusive. In addition, the last step of phagosome closure has been very difficult to observe because inhibition by RNA interference or dominant negative mutants often results in stalled phagocytic cup formation.
We have set up a dedicated experimental approach using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) combined with epifluorescence to monitor step by step the extension of pseudopods and their tips in a phagosome growing around a particle loosely bound to a coverslip. This method allows us to observe, with high resolution the very tips of the pseudopods and their fusion during closure of the phagosome in living cells for two different fluorescently tagged proteins at the same time.
Phagocytosis is a major cell function that starts with the recognition and binding of material to surface receptors, which then leads to the internalization and degradation of the ingested material. While single-celled eukaryotes such as the mold Dictyostelium discoideum and amoebae use phagocytosis for feeding on bacteria, higher organisms have evolved with professional cells. Macrophages or dendritic cells are the first line of defense against pathogens in various tissues and organs, and are crucial to activate the adaptive immune system through antigen presentation and cytokine production 1-4. Under certain circumstances phagocytosis can be perf....
Note: The plasmid used Lifeact-mCherry is a kind gift of Dr. Guillaume Montagnac, Institut Curie, Paris, generated after 17.
1. Cells and Transfection
Note: RAW264.7 macrophages are grown to sub confluency in complete medium (RPMI (Roswell Park Memorial Institute) 1640 medium, 10 mM HEPES, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 50 µM β-mercaptoethanol, 2 mM L-Glutamine and 10% FCS (Fetal Calf Serum)) in a 100 mm plate. They are transfected with plasmids encoding fluorescently tagged proteins by electropor.......
The experimental system described in this manuscript is schematically represented in Figure 1. Transfected RAW264.7 macrophages expressing the proteins of interest fused to a fluorescent tag are placed into contact with IgG-opsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) that were non-covalently fixed on the coverslip. The macrophages can detach the SRBC from the coverslip to engulf it. The TIRF microscope used allows concomitant acquisition of signals from the TIRF area correspo.......
The experimental protocol described here proposes an unprecedented method to follow in real time and in living cells, with high-resolution, the formation of a phagosome and in particular its closure. Several technical aspects have to be discussed. Firstly, the assay is very sensitive to temperature. It is very important to check that the heating chamber is at 37 °C and that all media, devices or cells are kept within the chamber to avoid temperature changes that could impair the efficiency of phagocytosis. We notice.......
We thank Dr. Alexandre Benmerah (Institut Imagine Necker, Paris, France) for initial discussions on the experimental approach and Dr. Jamil Jubrail for reading the manuscript. Nadège Kambou and Susanna Borreill are acknowledged for performing experiments with the method in our laboratory. This work was supported by grants from CNRS (ATIP Program), Ville de Paris and Agence Nationale de la Recherche (2011 BSV3 025 02), Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM INE20041102865, FRM DEQ20130326518 including a doctoral fellowship for FMA) to FN, and Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales" (ANRS) including a doctoral fellowship for....
|Anti-sheep red blood cells IgG
|Bovine Serum Albumin heat shock fraction, pH 7, ≥98%
|DPBS, no calcium, no magnesium
|Thermo Fischer Scientific
|100mm TC-Treated Cell Culture Dish
|Gene X-cell pulser
|Glass Bottom Dishes 35 mm uncoated 1.5
|Oil-immersion objective (N 100x, NA1.49.), heating chamber with CO2, a camera single photon detection EMCCD ( Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device) and a 1.5X lens
|Poly-L-Lysine Solution 0.1%
|Dilution at 0.01% in water
|RPMI 1640 medium GLUTAMAX Supplement
|RPMI 1640 medium, no phenol red (10x500 ml)
|Warm in 37°C water bath before use
|Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs)
|Conserved in Alsever buffer at 4°C before use
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