Published: March 12th, 2021
Biplane videoradiography can quantify shoulder kinematics with a high degree of accuracy. The protocol described herein was specifically designed to track the scapula, humerus, and the ribs during planar humeral elevation, and outlines the procedures for data collection, processing, and analysis. Unique considerations for data collection are also described.
The shoulder is one of the human body's most complex joint systems, with motion occurring through the coordinated actions of four individual joints, multiple ligaments, and approximately 20 muscles. Unfortunately, shoulder pathologies (e.g., rotator cuff tears, joint dislocations, arthritis) are common, resulting in substantial pain, disability, and decreased quality of life. The specific etiology for many of these pathologic conditions is not fully understood, but it is generally accepted that shoulder pathology is often associated with altered joint motion. Unfortunately, measuring shoulder motion with the necessary level of accuracy to investigate motion-based hypotheses is not trivial. However, radiographic-based motion measurement techniques have provided the advancement necessary to investigate motion-based hypotheses and provide a mechanistic understanding of shoulder function. Thus, the purpose of this article is to describe the approaches for measuring shoulder motion using a custom biplanar videoradiography system. The specific objectives of this article are to describe the protocols to acquire biplanar videoradiographic images of the shoulder complex, acquire CT scans, develop 3D bone models, locate anatomical landmarks, track the position and orientation of the humerus, scapula, and torso from the biplanar radiographic images, and calculate the kinematic outcome measures. In addition, the article will describe special considerations unique to the shoulder when measuring joint kinematics using this approach.
The shoulder is one of the human body's most complex joint systems, with motion occurring through the coordinated actions of four individual joints, multiple ligaments, and approximately 20 muscles. The shoulder also has the greatest range of motion of the body's major joints and is often described as a compromise between mobility and stability. Unfortunately, shoulder pathologies are common, resulting in substantial pain, disability, and decreased quality of life. For example, rotator cuff tears affect about 40% of the population over age 601,2,3, with approximately ....
Prior to data collection, the participant provided written informed consent. The investigation was approved by Henry Ford Health System's Institutional Review Board.
Protocols for acquiring, processing, and analyzing biplane radiographic motion data are highly dependent upon the imaging systems, data processing software, and outcome measures of interest. The following protocol was specifically designed to track the scapula, humerus, and the third and the fourth ribs during scapular-plane o.......
A 52-year-old asymptomatic female (BMI = 23.6 kg/m2) was recruited as part of a previous investigation and underwent motion testing (coronal plane abduction) on her dominant (right) shoulder65. Prior to data collection, the participant provided written informed consent. The investigation was approved by Henry Ford Health System's Institutional Review Board. Data collection was performed using the protocol previously described (Figure 3).
The technique described here overcomes several disadvantages associated with conventional techniques for assessing shoulder motion (i.e., cadaveric simulations, 2D imaging, static 3D imaging, video-based motion capture systems, wearable sensors, etc.) by providing accurate measures of 3D joint motion during dynamic activities. The accuracy of the protocol described herein was established for the glenohumeral joint against the gold standard of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to be ±0.5° and ±0.4 mm
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases under award number R01AR051912. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).....
|10 cm Lucite box with a tantalum bead in each corner and four additional beads midway along the box’s vertical edges (12 beads total). The positions of each bead are precisely known relative to a corner of the box that serves as the origin of the laboratory coordinate system.
|Distortion correction grid
|Lucite sheet that covers the entire face of the 16 inch image intensifier and contains an orthogonal array of tantalum beads spaced at 1 cm.
|National Institutes of Health
|Image processing software used to prepare TIFF stack of bone volumes.
|Markerless Tracking Workbench
|Custom, in house software
|A workbench of custom software used to digitize anatomical landmarks on 3D bone models, constructs anatomical coordinate systems, uses intensity-based image registration to perform markerless tracking, and calculates and visualize kinematic outcomes measures.
|Computer programming software. For used to perform data processing and analysis.
|Mimics (version 20)
|Image processing software used to segment humerus, scapula, and ribs from CT scan.
|Thermo Fisher Scientific
|3D graphics program used to visualize bones
|Phantom Camera Control (PCC) software (version 3.4)
|Software for specifying camera parameters, and acquiring and saving radiographic images
|Pulse generator (Model 9514)
|Quantum Composers, Inc.
|Syncs the x-ray and camera systems and specifies the exposure time
|Two 100 kW pulsed x-ray generators (Model CPX 3100CV)
|Generates the x-rays used to produce radiographic images
|Two 40 cm image intensifiers (Model P9447H110)
|North American Imaging
|Converts x-rays into photons to produce visible image
|Two Phantom VEO 340 cameras
|High speed cameras record the visible image created by the x-ray system
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