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Cancer Research

Modeling the Effects of Hemodynamic Stress on Circulating Tumor Cells using a Syringe and Needle

Published: April 27th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62478

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, 3MD program, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 4Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 5Department of Urology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa

Here we demonstrate a method to apply fluid shear stress to cancer cells in suspension to model the effects of hemodynamic stress on circulating tumor cells.

During metastasis, cancer cells from solid tissues, including epithelia, gain access to the lymphatic and hematogenous circulation where they are exposed to mechanical stress due to hemodynamic flow. One of these stresses that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) experience is fluid shear stress (FSS). While cancer cells may experience low levels of FSS within the tumor due to interstitial flow, CTCs are exposed, without extracellular matrix attachment, to much greater levels of FSS. Physiologically, FSS ranges over 3-4 orders of magnitude, with low levels present in lymphatics (<1 dyne/cm2) and the highest levels present briefly as cells pass through the heart and around heart valves (>500 dynes/cm2). There are a few in vitro models designed to model different ranges of physiological shear stress over various time frames. This paper describes a model to investigate the consequences of brief (millisecond) pulses of high-level FSS on cancer cell biology using a simple syringe and needle system.

Metastasis, or the spread of cancer beyond the initial tumor site, is a major factor underlying cancer mortality1. During metastasis, cancer cells utilize the circulatory system as a highway to disseminate to distant sites throughout the body2,3. While en route to these sites, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exist within a dynamic fluid microenvironment unlike that of their original primary tumor3,4,5. It has been proposed that this fluid microenvironment is one of many barriers to meta....

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1. Cell preparation

  1. Release cells from tissue culture dish when 70-90% confluent by following the recommended guidelines for the cell line in use.
    1. For example, aspirate the growth medium for PC-3 cells, and wash the 10 cm dish of cells with 5 mL of calcium- and magnesium-free phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).
    2. Aspirate the PBS before adding 1 mL of 0.25% trypsin using manufacturer's protocol.
    3. After observing the detachment of the cells under an inverted microscope, add 5 mL.......

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Elevated resistance to FSS-induced mechanical destruction has been previously shown to be a conserved phenotype across multiple cancer cell lines and cancer cells freshly isolated from tumors relative to non-transformed epithelial cell comparators15,24. Here, additional cancer cell lines from a variety of tissue origins (Table 2) were tested to demonstrate that the majority of these cells display viability ≥ 20% after 10 pulses of FSS at 25.......

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This paper demonstrates the application of FSS to cancer cells in suspension using a syringe and needle. Using this model, cancer cells have been shown to be more resistant to brief pulses of high-level FSS relative to non-transformed epithelial cells15,22,24. Furthermore, exposure to FSS using this model results in a rapid increase in cell stiffness, activation of RhoA, and increased cortical F-actin and myosin II-based contrac.......

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Development of the model demonstrated here was supported by DOD grant W81XWH-12-1-0163, NIH grants R21 CA179981 and R21 CA196202, and the Sato Metastasis Research Fund.

....

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
0.25% Trypsin Gibco 25200-056
14 mL round bottom tubes Falcon - Corning 352059
30 G 1/2" Needle BD 305106
5 mL syringe BD 309646
96-well black bottom plate Costar - Corning 3915
Bioluminescence detector AMI AMI HTX
BSA, Fraction V Sigma 10735086001
Cell Titer Blue Promega G8081
crystal violet Sigma C0775
D-luciferin GoldBio D-LUCK
DMEM Gibco 11965-092
FBS Atlanta Biologicals S11150
PBS Gibco 10010023
Plate Reader BioTek Synergy HT
Sodium Azide (NaN3) Sigma S2002
Syringe Pump Harvard Apparatus 70-3005

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