JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In





Representative Results






Combined Peripheral Nerve Stimulation and Controllable Pulse Parameter Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Probe Sensorimotor Control and Learning

Published: April 21st, 2023



1Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, University of Waterloo
* These authors contributed equally

Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol to probe sensorimotor integration. This article describes how SAI can be used to study the convergent sensorimotor loops in the motor cortex during sensorimotor behavior.

Skilled motor ability depends on efficiently integrating sensory afference into the appropriate motor commands. Afferent inhibition provides a valuable tool to probe the procedural and declarative influence over sensorimotor integration during skilled motor actions. This manuscript describes the methodology and contributions of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) for understanding sensorimotor integration. SAI quantifies the effect of a convergent afferent volley on the corticospinal motor output evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The afferent volley is triggered by the electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. The TMS stimulus is delivered to a location over the primary motor cortex that elicits a reliable motor-evoked response in a muscle served by that afferent nerve. The extent of inhibition in the motor-evoked response reflects the magnitude of the afferent volley converging on the motor cortex and involves central GABAergic and cholinergic contributions. The cholinergic involvement in SAI makes SAI a possible marker of declarative-procedural interactions in sensorimotor performance and learning. More recently, studies have begun manipulating the TMS current direction in SAI to tease apart the functional significance of distinct sensorimotor circuits in the primary motor cortex for skilled motor actions. The ability to control additional pulse parameters (e.g., the pulse width) with state-of-the-art controllable pulse parameter TMS (cTMS) has enhanced the selectivity of the sensorimotor circuits probed by the TMS stimulus and provided an opportunity to create more refined models of sensorimotor control and learning. Therefore, the current manuscript focuses on SAI assessment using cTMS. However, the principles outlined here also apply to SAI assessed using conventional fixed pulse width TMS stimulators and other forms of afferent inhibition, such as long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI).

Multiple sensorimotor loops converge in the motor cortex to shape pyramidal tract projections to spinal motor neurons and interneurons1. However, how these sensorimotor loops interact to shape corticospinal projections and motor behavior remains an open question. Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) provides a tool to probe the functional properties of convergent sensorimotor loops in motor cortex output. SAI combines motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electrical stimulation of the corresponding peripheral afferent nerve.

TMS is a non-invasive method to safely stimulate pyramidal motor neu....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The following protocol can be applied to various experiments. The information provided details an experiment in which SAI is used to quantify sensorimotor integration during a finger response to a validly or invalidly cued probe. In this protocol, SAI is assessed without a task, then concurrently during the cued sensorimotor task, and then again without a task. The cTMS stimulator can be replaced by any commercially available conventional TMS stimulator. However, the pulse width of the conventional TMS stimulator would b.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Figure 3 illustrates examples of unconditioned and conditioned MEPs from a single participant elicited in the FDI muscle during the sensorimotor task using PA120- and AP30- (subscript denotes pulse width) induced current. The bar graphs in the middle column illustrate the raw average peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes for the unconditioned and conditioned trials. The bar graphs to the right show the SAI and MEP onset latencies for the PA120- and AP30-indu.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The SAI method described here probes a subset of neural pathways that play a role in sensorimotor performance and learning. Assessing SAI while participants perform controlled sensorimotor tasks is critical for disentangling the complex contributions of the numerous sensorimotor loops that converge on the motor corticospinal neurons to shape the motor output in healthy and clinical populations. For example, a similar methodology has been used to identify the cerebellar influence over procedural motor control processes

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The authors acknowledge funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), and the Ontario Research Fund (ORF) awarded to S.K.M.


Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Acquisition software (for EMG) AD Instruments, Colorado Springs, CO, USA PL3504/P LabChart Pro version 8
Alcohol prep pads Medline Canada Corporation, Mississauga, ON, Canada 211-MM-05507 Alliance Sterile Medium, Antiseptic Isopropyl Alcohol Pad (200 per box)
Amplifier (for EMG) AD Instruments, Colorado Springs, CO, USA FE234 Quad Bio Amp
Cotton round Cliganic, San Francisco, CA, USA ‎CL-BE-019-6PK Premium Cotton Rounds (6-pack, 90 per package)
cTMS coils Rogue Research, Montréal, QC, Canada COIL70F80301 70 mm Medium Inductance Figure-8 coil
cTMS coils Rogue Research, Montréal, QC, Canada COIL70F80301-IC 70 mm Medium Inductance Figure-8 coil (Inverted Current)
cTMS stimulator Rogue Research, Montréal, QC, Canada CTMSMU0101 Elevate cTMS stimulator
Data acquisition board (for EMG) AD Instruments, Colorado Springs, CO, USA PL3504 PowerLab 4/35
Digital to analog board National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA 782251-01 NI USB-6341, X Series DAQ Device with BNC Termination
Dispoable adhesive electrodes (for EMG) Covidien, Dublin, Ireland 31112496 Kendal 130 Foam Electrodes
Electrogel E9 Electro-Gel for Electro-Cap (16 oz jar)
Nuprep Weaver and Company, Aurora, CO, USA 10-30 Nuprep skin prep gel (3-pack of 4 oz tubes) 
Peripheral electrical stimulator Digitimer, Hertfordshire, UK DS7R  DS7R High Voltage Constant Current Stimulator
Reusable bar electrode DDA-30 Black Bar Electrode, Flat, Cathode Distal
Software (for behaviour and stimulator triggering) National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA 784503-35 Labview 2020
TMS stereotactic coil guidance system Rogue Research, Montréal, QC, Canada KITBSF0404 BrainSight Neuronavigation System
Transpore tape 3M, Saint Paul, MN, USA 50707387794571 Transpore Medical Tape (1 in x 10 yds)

  1. Bizzi, E., Ajemian, R. From motor planning to execution: a sensorimotor loop perspective. Journal of Neurophysiology. 124 (6), 1815-1823 (2020).
  2. Chen, R. Studies of human motor physiology with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve Supplement. 9, S26-S32 (2000).
  3. Hallett, M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: A primer. Neuron. 55 (2), 187-199 (2007).
  4. Hallett, M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain. Nature. 406 (6792), 147-150 (2000).
  5. Day, B. L., et al. Electric and magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex - Surface EMG and single motor unit responses. Journal of Physiology. 412, 449-473 (1989).
  6. Di Lazzaro, V., et al. Comparison of descending volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation in conscious humans. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology/Electromyography and Motor Control. 109 (5), 397-401 (1998).
  7. Di Lazzaro, V., Rothwell, J. C. Corticospinal activity evoked and modulated by non-invasive stimulation of the intact human motor cortex. Journal of Physiology. 592 (19), 4115-4128 (2014).
  8. Chen, R., et al. The clinical diagnostic utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Report of an IFCN committee. Clinical Neurophysiology. 119 (3), 504-532 (2008).
  9. Rossini, P. M. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee. Clinical Neurophysiology. 126 (6), 1071-1107 (2015).
  10. Kujirai, T., et al. Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex. The Journal of Physiology. 471, 501-519 (1993).
  11. Tokimura, H., et al. Short latency inhibition of human hand motor cortex by somatosensory input from the hand. The Journal of Physiology. 523, 503-513 (2000).
  12. Nakamura, H., Kitagawa, H., Kawaguchi, Y., Tsuji, H. Intracortical facilitation and inhibition after transcranial magnetic stimulation in conscious humans. The Journal of Physiology. 498, 817-823 (1997).
  13. Chen, R., Corwell, B., Hallett, M. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by median nerve and digit stimulation. Experimental Brain Research. 129 (1), 77-86 (1999).
  14. Asmussen, M. J., Jacobs, M. F., Lee, K. G., Zapallow, C. M., Nelson, A. J. Short-latency afferent inhibition modulation during finger movement. PLoS One. 8 (4), e60496 (2013).
  15. Devanne, H. Afferent-induced facilitation of primary motor cortex excitability in the region controlling hand muscles in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (3), 439-448 (2009).
  16. Ni, Z., et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in different current directions activates separate cortical circuits. Journal of Neurophysiology. 105 (2), 749-756 (2011).
  17. Bailey, A. Z., Asmussen, M. J., Nelson, A. J. Short-latency afferent inhibition determined by the sensory afferent volley. Journal of Neurophysiology. 116 (2), 637-644 (2016).
  18. Fischer, M., Orth, M. Short-latency sensory afferent inhibition: conditioning stimulus intensity, recording site, and effects of 1 Hz repetitive TMS. Brain Stimulation. 4 (4), 202-209 (2011).
  19. Voller, B., et al. Short-latency afferent inhibition during selective finger movement. Experimental Brain Research. 169 (2), 226-231 (2006).
  20. Asmussen, M. J., et al. Modulation of short-latency afferent inhibition depends on digit and task-relevance. PLoS One. 9 (8), e104807 (2014).
  21. Suzuki, L. Y., Meehan, S. K. Attention focus modulates afferent input to motor cortex during skilled action. Human Movement Science. 74, 102716 (2020).
  22. Bonassi, G., et al. Selective sensorimotor modulation operates during cognitive representation of movement. Neuroscience. 409, 16-25 (2019).
  23. Beck, S., Hallett, M. Surround inhibition in the motor system. Experimental Brain Research. 210 (2), 165-172 (2011).
  24. Seki, K., Fetz, E. E. Gating of sensory input at spinal and cortical levels during preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (3), 890-902 (2012).
  25. Young-Bernier, M., Davidson, P. S., Tremblay, F. Paired-pulse afferent modulation of TMS responses reveals a selective decrease in short latency afferent inhibition with age. Neurobiology of Aging. 33 (4), 1-11 (2012).
  26. Pelosin, E., et al. Attentional control of gait and falls: Is cholinergic dysfunction a common substrate in the elderly and Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 8, 104 (2016).
  27. Dubbioso, R., Manganelli, F., Siebner, H. R., Di Lazzaro, V. Fast intracortical sensory-motor integration: A window into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 13, 111 (2019).
  28. Oh, E., et al. Olfactory dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease is associated with short latency afferent inhibition reflecting central cholinergic dysfunction. Clinical Neurophysiology. 128 (6), 1061-1068 (2017).
  29. Richardson, S. P., et al. Changes in short afferent inhibition during phasic movement in focal dystonia. Muscle & Nerve. 37 (3), 358-363 (2008).
  30. Ziemann, U., et al. TMS and drugs revisited 2014. Clinical Neurophysiology. 126 (10), 1847-1868 (2015).
  31. Di Lazzaro, V. Muscarinic receptor blockade has differential effects on the excitability of intracortical circuits in the human motor cortex. Experimental Brain Research. 135 (4), 455-461 (2000).
  32. Di Lazzaro, V., et al. Neurophysiological predictors of long term response to AChE inhibitors in AD patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 76 (8), 1064-1069 (2005).
  33. Fujiki, M., Hikawa, T., Abe, T., Ishii, K., Kobayashi, H. Reduced short latency afferent inhibition in diffuse axonal injury patients with memory impairment. Neuroscience Letters. 405 (3), 226-230 (2006).
  34. Koizume, Y., Hirano, M., Kubota, S., Tanaka, S., Funase, K. Relationship between the changes in M1 excitability after motor learning and arousal state as assessed by short-latency afferent inhibition. Behavioral Brain Research. 330, 56-62 (2017).
  35. Thabit, M. N., et al. Momentary reward induce changes in excitability of primary motor cortex. Clinical Neurophysiology. 122 (9), 1764-1770 (2011).
  36. Mirdamadi, J. L., Suzuki, L. Y., Meehan, S. K. Attention modulates specific motor cortical circuits recruited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroscience. 359, 151-158 (2017).
  37. Mirdamadi, J. L., Meehan, S. K. Specific sensorimotor interneuron circuits are sensitive to cerebellar-attention interactions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 16, 920526 (2022).
  38. Suzuki, L. Y., Meehan, S. K. Verbal working memory modulates afferent circuits in motor cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience. 48 (10), 3117-3125 (2018).
  39. Mineo, L., et al. Modulation of sensorimotor circuits during retrieval of negative autobiographical memories: Exploring the impact of personality dimensions. Neuropsychologia. 110, 190-196 (2018).
  40. Bonnì, S., Ponzo, V., Di Lorenzo, F., Caltagirone, C., Koch, G. Real-time activation of central cholinergic circuits during recognition memory. European Journal of Neuroscience. 45 (11), 1485-1489 (2017).
  41. Nardone, R., et al. Abnormal short latency afferent inhibition in early Alzheimer's disease: A transcranial magnetic demonstration. Journal of Neural Transmission. 115 (11), 1557-1562 (2008).
  42. Nardone, R., Bratti, A., Tezzon, F. Motor cortex inhibitory circuits in dementia with Lewy bodies and in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neural Transmission. 113 (11), 1679-1684 (2006).
  43. Di Lazzaro, V., et al. In vivo cholinergic circuit evaluation in frontotemporal and Alzheimer dementias. Neurology. 66 (7), 1111-1113 (2006).
  44. Di Lazzaro, V., et al. Functional evaluation of cerebral cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies. NeuroImage. 37 (2), 422-429 (2007).
  45. Di Lazzaro, V., et al. In vivo functional evaluation of central cholinergic circuits in vascular dementia. Clinical Neurophysiology. 119 (11), 2494-2500 (2008).
  46. Marra, C., et al. Central cholinergic dysfunction measured "in vivo" correlates with different behavioral disorders in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy body. Brain Stimulation. 5 (4), 533-538 (2012).
  47. Mimura, Y., et al. Neurophysiological biomarkers using transcranial magnetic stimulation in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 121, 47-59 (2021).
  48. Yarnall, A. J., et al. Short latency afferent inhibition: a biomarker for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders. 28 (9), 1285-1288 (2013).
  49. Celebi, O., Temuçin, C. M., Elibol, B., Saka, E. Short latency afferent inhibition in Parkinson's disease patients with dementia. Movement Disorders. 27 (8), 1052-1055 (2012).
  50. Martin-Rodriguez, J. F., Mir, P. Short-afferent inhibition and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A quantitative review and challenges. Neuroscience Letters. 719, 133679 (2020).
  51. Nardone, R., et al. Short latency afferent inhibition differs among the subtypes of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Neural Transmission. 119 (4), 463-471 (2012).
  52. Tsutsumi, R., et al. Reduced interhemispheric inhibition in mild cognitive impairment. Experimental Brain Research. 218 (1), 21-26 (2012).
  53. Di Lazzaro, V., et al. Segregating two inhibitory circuits in human motor cortex at the level of GABAA receptor subtypes: A TMS study. Clinical Neurophysiology. 118 (10), 2207-2214 (2007).
  54. Giorgetti, M., et al. Local GABAergic modulation of acetylcholine release from the cortex of freely moving rats. European Journal of Neuroscience. 12 (6), 1941-1948 (2000).
  55. Turco, C. V., Toepp, S. L., Foglia, S. D., Dans, P. W., Nelson, A. J. Association of short- and long-latency afferent inhibition with human behavior. Clinical Neurophysiology. 132 (7), 1462-1480 (2021).
  56. Hannah, R., Rothwell, J. C. Pulse duration as well as current direction determines the specificity of transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex during contraction. Brain Stimulation. 10 (1), 106-115 (2017).
  57. Peterchev, A. V., D'Ostilio, K., Rothwell, J. C., Murphy, D. L. Controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulator with enhanced circuit topology and pulse shaping. Journal of Neural Engineering. 11 (5), 056023 (2014).
  58. Peterchev, A. V., Murphy, D. L., Lisanby, S. H. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator with controllable pulse parameters (cTMS). Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2010, 2922-2926 (2010).
  59. Rothkegel, H., Sommer, M., Paulus, W., Lang, N. Impact of pulse duration in single pulse TMS. Clinical Neurophysiology. 121 (11), 1915-1921 (2010).
  60. MagPro Family User Guide. MagVenture A/S Available from: (2022)
  61. Bashir, S., Edwards, D., Pascual-Leone, A. Neuronavigation increases the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS of primary motor cortex in healthy subjects. Brain Topography. 24 (1), 54-64 (2011).
  62. Rossi, S., Hallett, M., Rossini, P. M., Pascual-Leone, A. Screening questionnaire before TMS: An update. Clinical Neurophysiology. 122 (8), 1686 (2011).
  63. Keel, J. C., Smith, M. J., Wassermann, E. M. A safety screening questionnaire for transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 112 (4), 720 (2001).
  64. Wassermann, E. M. Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, June 5-7, 1996. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 108 (1), 1-16 (1998).
  65. Rossi, S., et al. Safety and recommendations for TMS use in healthy subjects and patient populations, with updates on training, ethical and regulatory issues: Expert guidelines. Clinical Neurophysiology. 132 (1), 269-306 (2021).
  66. Udupa, K., Ni, Z., Gunraj, C., Chen, R. Effects of short latency afferent inhibition on short interval intracortical inhibition. Journal of Neurophysiology. 111 (6), 1350-1361 (2013).
  67. Udupa, K., Ni, Z., Gunraj, C., Chen, R. Interactions between short latency afferent inhibition and long interval intracortical inhibition. Experimental Brain Research. 199 (2), 177-183 (2009).
  68. Turco, C. V., El-Sayes, J., Fassett, H. J., Chen, R., Nelson, A. J. Modulation of long-latency afferent inhibition by the amplitude of sensory afferent volley. Journal of Neurophysiology. 118 (1), 610-618 (2017).
  69. Sakai, K., et al. Preferential activation of different I waves by transcranial magnetic stimulation with a figure-of-eight-shaped coil. Experimental Brain Research. 113 (1), 24-32 (1997).
  70. Groppa, S., et al. A practical guide to diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation: Report of an IFCN committee. Clinical Neurophysiology. 123 (5), 858-882 (2012).
  71. . Available from: (2022)
  72. Awiszus, F. TMS and threshold hunting. Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology. 56, 13-23 (2003).
  73. Silbert, B. I., Patterson, H. I., Pevcic, D. D., Windnagel, K. A., Thickbroom, G. W. A comparison of relative-frequency and threshold-hunting methods to determine stimulus intensity in transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 124 (4), 708-712 (2013).
  74. Cash, R. F., Isayama, R., Gunraj, C. A., Ni, Z., Chen, R. The influence of sensory afferent input on local motor cortical excitatory circuitry in humans. Journal of Physiology. 593 (7), 1667-1684 (2015).
  75. Hayes, K. D., Khan, M. E. R., Barclay, N. E., Meehan, S. K. The persistent effects of sports-related concussion during adolescence on sensorimotor integration. Canadian Association for Neuroscience Meeting. , (2022).
  76. Turco, C. V., et al. Short- and long-latency afferent inhibition; Uses, mechanisms and influencing factors. Brain Stimulation. 11 (1), 59-74 (2018).
  77. Casula, E. P., Rocchi, L., Hannah, R., Rothwell, J. C. Effects of pulse width, waveform and current direction in the cortex: A combined cTMS-EEG study. Brain Stimulation. 11 (5), 1063-1070 (2018).
  78. D'Ostilio, K., et al. Effect of coil orientation on strength-duration time constant and I-wave activation with controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 127 (1), 675-683 (2016).
  79. Barclay, N. E., Graham, K. R., Hayes, K. D., Meehan, S. K. Program No. 474.08.The contribution of oscillatory activity to the modulation of different sensorimotor circuits under varying working memory load. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. , (2022).
  80. Dubbioso, R., Raffin, E., Karabanov, A., Thielscher, A., Siebner, H. R. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area. NeuroImage. 158, 37-47 (2017).
  81. Adams, F. C., et al. Tactile sensorimotor training does not alter short- and long-latency afferent inhibition. Neuroreport. 34 (3), 123-127 (2023).
  82. Paparella, G., Rocchi, L., Bologna, M., Berardelli, A., Rothwell, J. Differential effects of motor skill acquisition on the primary motor and sensory cortices in healthy humans. Journal of Physiology. 598 (18), 4031-4045 (2020).
  83. Deveci, S., et al. Effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66Met polymorphism on sensory-motor integration during a complex motor learning exercise. Brain Research. 1732, 146652 (2020).
  84. Turco, C. V., Locke, M. B., El-Sayes, J., Tommerdahl, M., Nelson, A. J. Exploring behavioral correlates of afferent inhibition. Brain Sciences. 8 (4), 64 (2018).
  85. Mang, C. S., Bergquist, A. J., Roshko, S. M., Collins, D. F. Loss of short-latency afferent inhibition and emergence of afferent facilitation following neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Neuroscience Letters. 529 (1), 80-85 (2012).
  86. Mirdamadi, J. L., Block, H. J. Somatosensory changes associated with motor skill learning. Journal of Neurophysiology. 123 (3), 1052-1062 (2020).
  87. Bologna, M., et al. Bradykinesia in Alzheimer's disease and its neurophysiological substrates. Clinical Neurophysiology. 131 (4), 850-858 (2020).
  88. Schirinzi, T. Amyloid-mediated cholinergic dysfunction in motor impairment related to Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 64 (2), 525-532 (2018).
  89. Cohen, L. G., Starr, A. Localization, timing and specificity of gating of somatosensory evoked potentials during active movement in man. Brain. 110 (2), 451-467 (1987).
  90. Brown, K. E., et al. The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures Active and resting motor threshold are efficiently obtained with adaptive threshold hunting. Brain Stimulation. 10 (6), 1102-1111 (2017).
  91. Turco, C. V., Pesevski, A., McNicholas, P. D., Beaulieu, L. D., Nelson, A. J. Reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation measures of afferent inhibition. Brain Research. 1723, 146394 (2019).
  92. Rehsi, R. S., et al. Investigating the intra-session reliability of short and long latency afferent inhibition. Clinical Neurophysiology Practice. 8, 16-23 (2023).
  93. Toepp, S. L., Turco, C. V., Rehsi, R. S., Nelson, A. J. The distribution and reliability of TMS-evoked short- and long-latency afferent interactions. PLoS One. 16 (12), e0260663 (2021).
  94. Alle, H., Heidegger, T., Krivanekova, L., Ziemann, U. Interactions between short-interval intracortical inhibition and short-latency afferent inhibition in human motor cortex. Journal of Physiology-London. 587 (21), 5163-5176 (2009).
  95. Noda, Y., et al. A combined TMS-EEG study of short-latency afferent inhibition in the motor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology. 116 (3), 938-948 (2016).
  96. Noda, Y. Reduced prefrontal short-latency afferent inhibition in older adults and its relation to executive function: A TMS-EEG study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 9, 119 (2017).
  97. Noda, Y., et al. Reduced short-latency afferent inhibition in prefrontal but not motor cortex and its association with executive function in schizophrenia: A combined TMS-EEG study. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 44 (1), 193-202 (2018).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo


Terms of Use





Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved