JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Medicine

Establishment and Confirmation of a Postnatal Right Ventricular Volume Overload Mouse Model

Published: June 9th, 2023

DOI:

10.3791/65372

* These authors contributed equally

This protocol presents the establishment and confirmation of a postnatal right ventricular volume overload (VO) model in mice with abdominal arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which can be applied to investigate how VO contributes to postnatal heart development.

Right ventricular (RV) volume overload (VO) is common in children with congenital heart disease. In view of distinct developmental stages,the RV myocardium may respond differently to VO in children compared to adults. The present study aims to establish a postnatal RV VO model in mice using a modified abdominal arteriovenous fistula. To confirm the creation of VO and the following morphological and hemodynamic changes of the RV, abdominal ultrasound, echocardiography, and histochemical staining were performed for 3 months. As a result, the procedure in postnatal mice showed an acceptable survival and fistula success rate. In VO mice, the RV cavity was enlarged with a thickened free wall, and the stroke volume was increased by about 30%-40% within 2 months after surgery. Thereafter, the RV systolic pressure increased, corresponding pulmonary valve regurgitation was observed, and small pulmonary artery remodeling appeared. In conclusion, modified arteriovenous fistula (AVF) surgery is feasible to establish the RV VO model in postnatal mice. Considering the probability of fistula closure and elevated pulmonary artery resistance, abdominal ultrasound and echocardiography must be performed to confirm the model status before application.

Right ventricular (RV) volume overload (VO) is common in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), which leads to pathological myocardial remodeling and a poor long-term prognosis1,2,3. An in-depth understanding of RV remodeling and related early targeted interventions is essential for a good outcome in children with CHD. There are several differences in the molecular structures, physiological functions, and responses to stimuli in the hearts of adults and children1,4,5,

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

All of the procedures presented here conformed to the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki and were approved by the Animal Welfare and Human Studies Committee at Shanghai Children's Medical Center (SCMC-LAWEC-2023-003). C57BL/6 mice pups (P7, males, 3-4 g) were used for the present study. The animals were obtained from a commercial source (see Table of Materials). The mice pups and their nursing mothers (pups:mothers = 6:1 in a single cage) were kept under specific-pathogen-free laborat.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Survival rate and AVF patency within 3 months
A total of 30 (75%) mice in the VO group and 19 (95%) mice in the sham group survived the AVF surgery (Figure 4A). In the VO group, eight mice died within 1 day after surgery due to excessive bleeding (n = 5) or cannibalization (n = 3), whereas two mice died of unknown causes at 1 month.

Of the surviving VO mice (n = 30), ultrasound confirmed the successful establishment of fistulas in 21 mice po.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Previously, the classic RV VO model was created using valve regurgitation21; however, compared to AVF, open-heart valve surgery may require more sophisticated techniques and may be associated with significantly higher mortality, particularly in postnatal mice. As animal studies have shown that the same effect of VO has been achieved by AVF22, modified abdominal fistula surgery with less trauma was used in this study.

Certain factors were consider.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (no. 82200309) and the Innovation Project of Distinguished Medical Team in Ningbo (no. 2022020405)

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

NameCompanyCatalog NumberComments
70% EthanolTiandz,Chia
ACETAMINOPHEN Oral SolutionVistaPharm, Inc. Largo, FL 33771, USANDC 66689-054-01
Anesthesia machineRWD Life Science,ChinaR550IP
Anesthesia maskRWD Life Science,China68680
C57BL/6 miceXipu’er-bikai Experimental Animal Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China)
Hair removal creamVeet, FranceVT-200
Hematoxylin and eosin Kit Beyotime biotech C0105M 
IsofluraneRWD Life Science,ChinaR510-22-10
Microscope Yuyan Instruments, ChinaSM-301
Surgical suture needlesNINGBO MEDICAL NEEDLE CO.,LTD, China
Thermostatic heating platformQingdao Juchuang Environmental Protection Group Co., Ltd, China
Ultrasound deviceFUJIFILM VisualSonics, Inc.Vevo 2100Image modes includes B-Mode, Color Doppler Mode and Pulsed Wave Doppler Mode
Ultrasound gelParker Laboratories,United StatesREF 01-08
Ultrasound transducerFUJIFILM VisualSonics, Inc.MS 400

  1. Sanz, J., Sanchez-Quintana, D., Bossone, E., Bogaard, H. J., Naeije, R. Anatomy, function, and dysfunction of the right ventricle: JACC state-of-the-art review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 73 (12), 1463-1482 (2019).
  2. Alonso-Gonzalez, R., Dimopoulos, K., Ho, S., Oliver, J. M., Gatzoulis, M. A. The right heart and pulmonary circulation (IX). The right heart in adults with congenital heart disease. Revista Española de Cardiología. 63 (9), 1070-1086 (2010).
  3. Kovacs, A., Lakatos, B., Tokodi, M., Merkely, B. Right ventricular mechanical pattern in health and disease: beyond longitudinal shortening. Heart Failure Reviews. 24 (4), 511-520 (2019).
  4. Ye, L., et al. Role of blood oxygen saturation during postnatal human cardiomyocyte cell cycle activities. JACC: Basic to Translational Science. 5 (5), 447-460 (2020).
  5. Ye, L., et al. Pressure overload greatly promotes neonatal right ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation: a new model for the study of heart regeneration. Journal of the American Heart Association. 9 (11), e015574 (2020).
  6. Geraets, I. M. E., Glatz, J. F. C., Luiken, J., Nabben, M. Pivotal role of membrane substrate transporters on the metabolic alterations in the pressure-overloaded heart. Cardiovascular Research. 115 (6), 1000-1012 (2019).
  7. Burns, K. M., et al. New mechanistic and therapeutic targets for pediatric heart failure: report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group. Circulation. 130 (1), 79-86 (2014).
  8. Shaddy, R. E., et al. Carvedilol for children and adolescents with heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 298 (10), 1171-1179 (2007).
  9. Flaim, S. F., Minteer, W. J., Nellis, S. H., Clark, D. P. Chronic arteriovenous shunt: evaluation of a model for heart failure in rat. American Journal of Physiology. 236 (5), H698-H704 (1979).
  10. Liu, Z., Hilbelink, D. R., Crockett, W. B., Gerdes, A. M. Regional changes in hemodynamics and cardiac myocyte size in rats with aortocaval fistulas. 1. Developing and established hypertrophy. Circulation Research. 69 (1), 52-58 (1991).
  11. Scheuermann-Freestone, M., et al. A new model of congestive heart failure in the mouse due to chronic volume overload. European Journal of Heart Failure. 3 (5), 535-543 (2001).
  12. Du, Y., Plante, E., Janicki, J. S., Brower, G. L. Temporal evaluation of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia in male rats secondary to chronic volume overload. The American Journal of Pathology. 177 (3), 1155-1163 (2010).
  13. Wu, J., Luo, X., Huang, Y., He, Y., Li, Z. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 240 (10), 1362-1372 (2015).
  14. Sun, S., et al. Postnatal right ventricular developmental track changed by volume overload. Journal of the American Heart Association. 10 (16), e020854 (2021).
  15. Wang, S., et al. Metabolic maturation during postnatal right ventricular development switches to heart-contraction regulation due to volume overload. Journal of Cardiology. 79 (1), 110-120 (2022).
  16. Zhou, C., et al. Downregulated developmental processes in the postnatal right ventricle under the influence of a volume overload. Cell Death Discovery. 7 (1), 208 (2021).
  17. Cui, Q., et al. Volume overload initiates an immune response in the right ventricle at the neonatal stage. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 8, 772336 (2021).
  18. Cheng, H. W., et al. Assessment of right ventricular structure and function in mouse model of pulmonary artery constriction by transthoracic echocardiography. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (84), e51041 (2014).
  19. Sawada, H., et al. Ultrasound imaging of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in mice to determine aneurysm dimensions. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (145), e59013 (2019).
  20. Thibault, H. B., et al. Noninvasive assessment of murine pulmonary arterial pressure: validation and application to models of pulmonary hypertension. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 3 (2), 157-163 (2010).
  21. Mori, Y., et al. A new dynamic three-dimensional digital color doppler method for quantification of pulmonary regurgitation: validation study in an animal model. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 40 (6), 1179-1185 (2002).
  22. Bossers, G. P. L., et al. Volume load-induced right ventricular dysfunction in animal models: insights in a translational gap in congenital heart disease. European Journal of Heart Failure. 20 (4), 808-812 (2018).
  23. Yamamoto, K., et al. The mouse aortocaval fistula recapitulates human arteriovenous fistula maturation. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 305 (12), H1718-H1725 (2013).
  24. Jouannic, J. M., et al. The effect of a systemic arteriovenous fistula on the pulmonary arterial blood pressure in the fetal sheep. Prenatal Diagnosis. 22 (1), 48-51 (2002).
  25. Jouannic, J. M., et al. Systemic arteriovenous fistula leads to pulmonary artery remodeling and abnormal vasoreactivity in the fetal lamb. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 285 (3), L701-L709 (2003).
  26. Patel, M. D., et al. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular afterload in preterm infants: maturational patterns of pulmonary artery acceleration time over the first year of age and implications for pulmonary hypertension. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 32 (7), 884-894 (2019).
  27. Habash, S., et al. Normal values of the pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT) and the right ventricular ejection time (RVET) in children and adolescents and the impact of the PAAT/RVET-index in the assessment of pulmonary hypertension. The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. 35 (2), 295-306 (2019).
  28. Arkles, J. S., et al. Shape of the right ventricular Doppler envelope predicts hemodynamics and right heart function in pulmonary hypertension. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 183 (2), 268-276 (2011).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved