JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Medicine

Effects of Mindfulness Training Combined with Tai Chi in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Published: July 14th, 2023

DOI:

10.3791/65421

1Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
* These authors contributed equally

When studying exercise for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), achieving mind-body exercise is essential. This study proposes a protocol for mindfulness training combined with Tai Chi to achieve mind-body exercise.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes. One of its crucial therapy approaches is mind-body exercise. Recently, various exercise modalities, including stepping, resistance, aerobics, balance, and whole-body vibration, were investigated to construct the most suitable form of exercise for patients with DPN. The purpose of this study is to describe a standard protocol for mindfulness training combined with Tai Chi. The convenience sampling method was used to select 90 patients with DPN who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria from three communities. The three communities were randomly divided into the control group (CG), the Tai Chi group (TCG), and the mindfulness training combined with the Tai Chi group (MTCG). The CG was given routine health education guidance once a month, a total of three times. Based on the CG, the TCG practiced Tai Chi three times; the MTCG received mindfulness training combined with Tai Chi exercise a week for a total of 12 weeks. Before the intervention and 12 weeks after the intervention, the clinical symptoms, neurological function, attention awareness level, pain, and quality of life of the subjects were evaluated by Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS), Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Visual analog scale (VAS), Diabetes Specificity Quality of life Scale (DSQL) and tumor necrosis factor-α. Overall, the addition of mindfulness training to Tai Chi effectively enhances the exercise effects of Tai Chi. Therefore, mindfulness training combined with Tai Chi is worthy of promotion and application.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a serious health concern globally, affecting millions of people worldwide1. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) reveals that the prevalence of DM could increase up to 12.2% by 20452. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) accounts for about 90% of DM2. Patients with T2DM, particularly those who struggle to control their blood glucose levels, are likely to suffer from adverse complications, including macrovascular disease, microangiopathy, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN)3. DPN is a prevalent microvascular complication, with at least 50% of DM patie....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This study strictly adheres to the principle of ethical respect, beneficence, and justice. There were 30 subjects in each group, a total of 90 cases. This subject was approved by the ethics committee of the Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2021KL-040). Informed consent was obtained from patients included in this study.

1. Study subjects

  1. Select 3 communities in Chengdu using the convenience sampling method.
  2. Recruit patients w.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

In this study, 7 individuals failed to complete the trial. All necessary data were gathered from 83 individuals who completed the trial. There were 38 women and 45 men. The age ranged from 44 to 75 years old, with an average age of (60.57 + 8.76). DM might last anywhere between 4 and 22 years, with an average of 14.10 + 4.85 years. DPN lasted anywhere from one and fifteen years, with a mean of 5.76 + 2.78 years. The general data of the three groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05).

Af.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Many previous studies have reported how to apply Tai Chi to treat and rehabilitate chronic diseases40,41. Although Tai Chi has shown positive effects in the treatment and rehabilitation of chronic diseases, truly achieving physical and mental exercise is vital to the enhanced effects of Tai Chi. This study combined Tai Chi with mindfulness training, which successfully improved the practice effectiveness of Tai Chi and indeed achieved physical and mental movement........

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This study was supported by a grant from the Science and Technology Development Fund of the Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (20HL01) and the Sichuan Province cadre health research project (2023-505). This study was supported by a grant from the Sichuan Provincial Cadre Health Department (Chuan Gan Yan 2023-505).

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
SPSS 24.0  IBM version 24.0  Statistical analysis

  1. Chinese Diabetes Society. Guidelines for the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes in China (2020 Edition). International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 41 (05), 482-548 (2021).
  2. Ogurtsova, K., et al. IDF diabetes atlas: Global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 128, 40-50 (2017).
  3. Teck, J. Diabetes-associated comorbidities. Primary Care. 49 (2), 275-286 (2022).
  4. Yang, K., et al. Progress in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomedical Pharmacotherapy. 148, 112717 (2022).
  5. Barrell, K., Smith, A. G. Peripheral neuropathy. The Medical Clinics of North America. 103 (2), 383-397 (2019).
  6. Martin, C. L., Albers, J. W., Pop-Busui, R. Neuropathy and related findings in the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study. Diabetes Care. 37 (1), 31-38 (2014).
  7. Zhang, P., et al. Global epidemiology of diabetic foot ulceration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Medicine. 49 (2), 106-116 (2017).
  8. Chen, L., Sun, S., Gao, Y., Ran, X. Global mortality of diabetic foot ulcer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 25 (1), 36-45 (2023).
  9. Kioskli, K., Scott, W., Winkley, K., Kylakos, S., McCracken, L. M. Psychosocial factors in painful diabetic neuropathy: A systematic review of treatment trials and survey studies. Pain Medicine. 20 (9), 1756-1773 (2019).
  10. Feldman, E. L., et al. Diabetic neuropathy. Nature Reviews. Disease Primers. 5, 42 (2019).
  11. Colberg, S. R., et al. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: A position statement of the American diabetes association. Diabetes Care. 39 (11), 2065-2079 (2016).
  12. Hua, S. S., LI, G. C., Cai, H., Lu, Y. F., Chen, L. The effects of exercise on diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a literature review. Chinese Journal of Nursing. 52 (10), 1252-1256 (2017).
  13. Streckmann, F., et al. Exercise and neuropathy: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 52 (5), 1043-1065 (2022).
  14. Vlaeyen, J. W. S., Kole-Snijders, A. M. J., Boeren, R. G. B., van Eek, H. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain. 62 (3), 363-372 (1995).
  15. Leeuw, M., et al. The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 30 (1), 77-94 (2007).
  16. van Laake-Geelen, C. C. M., Smeets, R., Quadflieg, S., Kleijnen, J., Verbunt, J. A. The effect of exercise therapy combined with psychological therapy on physical activity and quality of life in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy: a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Pain. 19 (3), 433-439 (2019).
  17. Nieto, R., Miró, J., Huguet, A. The fear-avoidance model in whiplash injuries. European Journal of Pain. 13 (5), 518-523 (2009).
  18. Marin, T. J., et al. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6 (6), Cd002193 (2017).
  19. Li, F., et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (6), 511-519 (2012).
  20. Taylor-Piliae, R., Dolan, H., Yako, A. Stroke survivors' personal efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations of Tai Chi exercise: A qualitative descriptive study. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health. 18 (24), 13001 (2021).
  21. Siu, P. M., et al. Effects of Tai Chi or conventional exercise on central obesity in middle-aged and older adults: A three-group randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 174 (8), 1050-1057 (2021).
  22. Wang, C., et al. Comparative effectiveness of Tai Chi versus physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 165 (2), 77-86 (2016).
  23. Irwin, M. R., et al. Tai Chi compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of insomnia in survivors of breast cancer: A randomized, partially blinded, noninferiority trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 35 (23), 2656-2665 (2017).
  24. Yang, L., Liu, W. L. Research progress on the application of Taiiquan in exercise rehabilitation practice of the elderly. Chinese Journal of Health Education. 38 (10), 939-959 (2022).
  25. Chau, J. P. C., et al. Effects of Tai Chi on health outcomes among community-dwelling adults with or at risk of metabolic syndrome: A systematic review. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practice. 44, 101445 (2021).
  26. Guo, S., et al. Effect of Tai Chi on glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and body composition in adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 53 (3), jrm00165 (2021).
  27. Qin, J., et al. Effect of Tai Chi on quality of life, body mass index, and waist-hip ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Endocrinology (Lausanne). 11, 543627 (2020).
  28. Ameli, R., et al. Effect of a brief mindfulness-based program on stress in health care professionals at a US biomedical research hospital: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open. 3 (8), e2013424 (2020).
  29. Zeidan, F., Grant, J. A., Brown, C. A., McHaffie, J. G., Coghill, R. C. Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain. Neuroscience Letters. 520 (2), 165-173 (2012).
  30. Wielgosz, J., Goldberg, S. B., Kral, T. R. A., Dunne, J. D., Davidson, R. J. Mindfulness meditation and psychopathology. Annual Reviews of Clinical Psychology. 15, 285-316 (2019).
  31. Gao, S., et al. The therapeutic effects of mild to moderate intensity aerobic exercise on glycemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Diabetes Therapy. 12 (10), 2767-2781 (2021).
  32. Bühlmayer, L., Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., Faude, O., Donath, L. Effects of mindfulness practice on performance-relevant parameters and performance outcomes in sports: A meta-analytical review. Sports Medicine. 47 (11), 2309-2321 (2017).
  33. Wang, Z. Y. . Tai Chi Manua. , (1991).
  34. Shellock, F. G., Prentice, W. E. Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries. Sports Medicine. 2 (4), 267-278 (1985).
  35. Cayco, C. S., Labro, A. V., Gorgon, E. J. R. Hold-relax and contract-relax stretching for hamstrings flexibility: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Physical Therapy in Sport. 35, 42-55 (2019).
  36. Perkins, B. A., Olaleye, D., Zinman, B., Bril, V. Simple screening tests for peripheral neuropathy in the diabetes clinic. Diabetes Care. 24 (2), 250-256 (2001).
  37. Woodforde, J. M., Merskey, H. Some relationships between subjective measures of pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 16 (3), 173-178 (1972).
  38. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84 (4), 822-848 (2003).
  39. Tang, Z., et al. Validation of the simplified Chinese version of the brief diabetes quality of life (DQoL) questionnaire based on a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17 (23), 8792 (2020).
  40. Li, X., et al. Effects of fitness qigong and tai chi on middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PLoS One. 15 (12), e0243989 (2020).
  41. Lee, S. H., Jeon, Y., Huang, C. W., Cheon, C., Ko, S. G. Qigong and Tai Chi on human health: An overview of systematic reviews. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 50 (8), 1995-2010 (2022).
  42. Qin, j., Li, X., Bo, S., Geng, F. Research progress on the mechanism of mindfulness-based stress reduction and itsapplication in chronic diseases. China Journal of Health Psychology. 28 (10), 1593-1597 (2020).
  43. Deuel, L. M., Seeberger, L. C. Complementary therapies in Parkinson disease: A review of acupuncture, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Yoga, and cannabis. Neurotherapeutics. 17 (4), 1434-1455 (2020).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved