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Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Biology

Integrated Bone Formation Through In Vivo Endochondral Ossification Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Published: July 14th, 2023

DOI:

10.3791/65573

1Department of Molecular Craniofacial Embryology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 3Department of Regenerative and Reconstructive Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

Bone therapy via endochondral ossification by implanting artificial cartilage tissue produced from mesenchymal stem cells has the potential to circumvent the drawbacks of conventional therapies. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels are effective in scaling up uniformly differentiated cartilage grafts as well as creating integrated bone with vascularization between fused grafts in vivo.

Conventional bone regeneration therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is difficult to apply to bone defects larger than the critical size because it does not have a mechanism to induce angiogenesis. Implanting artificial cartilage tissue fabricated from MSCs induces angiogenesis and bone formation in vivo via endochondral ossification (ECO). Therefore, this ECO-mediated approach may be a promising bone regeneration therapy in the future. An important aspect of the clinical application of this ECO-mediated approach is establishing a protocol for preparing enough cartilage to be implanted to repair the bone defect. It is especially not practical to design a single mass of grafted cartilage of a size that conforms to the shape of the actual bone defect. Therefore, the cartilage to be transplanted must have the property of forming bone integrally when multiple pieces are implanted. Hydrogels may be an attractive tool for scaling up tissue-engineered grafts for endochondral ossification to meet clinical requirements. Although many naturally derived hydrogels support MSC cartilage formation in vitro and ECO in vivo, the optimal scaffold material to meet the needs of clinical applications has yet to be determined. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a crucial component of the cartilage extracellular matrix and is a biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide. Here, we show that HA hydrogels have excellent properties to support in vitro differentiation of MSC-based cartilage tissue and promote endochondral bone formation in vivo.

Autologous bone is still the gold standard for repairing bone defects due to trauma, congenital defects, and surgical resection. However, autogenous bone grafting has significant limitations, including donor pain, risk of infection, and limited bone volume that can be isolated from the patients1,2,3,4. Numerous biomaterials have been developed as bone substitutes, combining natural or synthetic polymers with mineralized materials such as calcium phosphate or hydroxyapatite5,6. Bone f....

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This protocol uses 4-week-old male nude mice. House four mice in a cage under a 12 h light/dark cycle at 22−24 °C and 50%−70% relative humidity. All animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the guidelines approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University (approval ID: A2019-204C, A2020-116A, and A2021-121A).

1. Preparation of buffers and reagents

  1. Prepare mesenchymal stem cell growth mediu.......

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MSC-encapsulated HA hydrogels were cultured in chondrogenic medium supplemented with TGFβ3, an inducer of chondrogenesis41 (step 4.1). We compared the properties of HA with those of collagen, which has been shown to be effective in creating MSC-based artificial cartilage grafts for endochondral ossification, as described previously38. Undifferentiated MSCs were not included as negative controls in this study because it has been demonstrated that undifferentiated MSCs r.......

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Using appropriate scaffold materials that promote the transition from hypertrophic cartilage to bone is a promising approach to scale up MSC-based engineered hypertrophic cartilage grafts and treat bone defects of clinically significant size. Here, we show that HA is an excellent scaffold material to support the differentiation of MSC-based hypertrophic cartilage tissue in vitro and to promote endochondral bone formation in vivo38. Furthermore, in vivo, HA constructs wer.......

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This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (grant nos. JP19K10259 and 22K10032 to MAI).

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
0.25w/v% Trypsin-1mmol/L EDTA.4Na Solution FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  209-16941
Antisedan Nippon Zenyaku Kogyo
ascorbate-2-phosphate Nacalai Tesque 13571-14
Bambanker GC Lymphotec CS-02-001
basic fibroblastic growth factor Reprocell RCHEOT002 
bovine serum albumin FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  012-23881 7.5 w/v%
Countess Automated Cell Counter with cell counting chamber slides and Trypan Blue stain 0.4% Invitrogen C10283
dexamethasone Merck D8893
Domitor Nippon Zenyaku Kogyo
Dormicum Astellas Pharma
Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium Merck D6429 high glucose
Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 Ham Merck D6421
Fetal bovine serum Hyclone SH30396.03
Gentamicin sulfate FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  1676045  10 mg/mL
Haccpper Generator TechnoMax CH-400-5QB 50 ppm hypochlorous acid water
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Lonza PT-2501
HyStem Cell Culture Scaffold Kit Merck HYS020
IL-1ß PeproTech AF-200-01B
ITS-G supplement FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  090-06741 ×100
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  016-21841 200mmol/L (×100)
L-proline Nacalai Tesque 29001-42
L-Thyroxine Merck T1775
MSCGM Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Medium
BulletKit
Lonza PT-3001
paraffin FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  165-13375
PBS / pH7.4 100ml Medicago 09-2051-100
TGF-β3  Proteintech HZ-1090
Vetorphale Meiji Seika Kaisha
Visiocare Ointment SAVAVET/SAVA Healthcare
β-glycerophosphate FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical  048-34332

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