JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Environment

Visualization of Productivity Zones Based on Nitrogen Mass Balance Model in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

Published: July 14th, 2023

DOI:

10.3791/65728

1School of Earth, Environmental and Marine Sciences, University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley, 2Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, 3Rhode Island School of Design, 4Department of Art, University of New Mexico

Here, we aim to visualize the zonation of biological productivity in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, based on the nitrogen mass balance model. The results will inform nutrient management in the coastal regions to reduce hypoxia and eutrophication.

Primary productivity in the coastal regions, linked to eutrophication and hypoxia, provides a critical understanding of ecosystem function. Although primary productivity largely depends on riverine nutrient inputs, estimation of the extent of riverine nutrient influences in the coastal regions is challenging. A nitrogen mass balance model is a practical tool to evaluate coastal ocean productivity to understand biological mechanisms beyond data observations. This study visualizes the biological production zones in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA, where hypoxia frequently occurs, by applying a nitrogen mass balance model. The Bay is divided into three zones - brown, green, and blue zones - based on primary productivity, which are defined by the mass balance model results. Brown, green, and blue zones represent a high physical process, a high biological process, and a low biological process zone, depending on river flow, nutrient concentrations, and mixing rates. The results of this study can better inform nutrient management in the coastal ocean in response to hypoxia and eutrophication.

Primary productivity, the production of organic compounds by phytoplankton, fuels ecosystem food webs, and is important for understanding the system's function in response to environmental changes1,2. Estuarine primary productivity is also closely linked to eutrophication which is defined as excessive nutrients in the ecosystem1, causing several harmful consequences in the coastal regions, such as an overgrowth of phytoplankton leading to large algal blooms and subsequent hypoxia3,4. Importantly, primary productivity in estu....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Applying the N-mass balance model

  1. Download the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for 166 stations in Narragansett Bay from 1990 to 2015.
    NOTE: In this study, the sum of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2-), and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were considered as the DIN concentration.
  2. Split the Narragansett Bay into fifteen boxes along its axis modified from .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Three theoretical zones of Narragansett Bay based on the N-mass balance model
The three theoretical zones in Narragansett Bay (NB) were defined based on the N-mass balance model results, in which the DIN data were applied to fifteen boxes of NB, and then the mean DIN in each box was converted to the PPP rates for the summer period. As shown in Figure 2, based on the mean summer (June to September) PPP rates of each box, three (brown, green, and blue) zones in NB were i.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This study estimated the extent of nutrient impacts from riverine inputs in Narraganset Bay (NB) based on the N-mass balance model by defining the three theoretical zones. Historically, hypoxic zones appeared near the Providence River, the western side of Greenwich Bay, and Mount Hope Bay during the summer period18, which were defined as brown zones in this study. Moreover, the zonation of NB is comparable to the results of a previous study19, which examined nutrient concen.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This study was supported by the National Science Foundation (OIA-1655221, OCE-1655686) and Rhode Island Sea Grant (NA22-OAR4170123, RISG22-R/2223-95-5-U). We also would like to thank the Rhode Island School of Design for developing the Vis-A-Thon project and this visualization.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

NameCompanyCatalog NumberComments
Adobe Illustrator Adobeversion 27.6.1https://www.adobe.com/products/illustrator.html
Ampersand Gessobord Uncradled 1/8" Profile 8" x 8"Risdstore70731053088https://www.risdstore.com/ampersand-gessobord-8x8-flat-1-8-profile.html
Ocean Data View softwarehttps://odv.awi.de/en/software/download/
W-Series (Wide) Flexible LED Strip Light - Ultra Bright (18 LEDs/foot)aspectLEDSKU AL-SL-W-Uhttps://www.aspectled.com/products/w-wide-5050-ultra-bright?gclid=CjwKCAjwm4ukBhAuEiwA0z
QxkyqisRPqBcHvXEW8KcJE-bK0d2cvGtqlOxXWJI_
E2rd6DzttPR0FLRoCgfkQAvD_BwE

  1. Nixon, S. W. Coastal marine eutrophication: A definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia. 41, 199-219 (1995).
  2. Kim, J. S., Brush, M. J., Song, B., Anderson, I. C. Reconstructing primary production in a changing estuary: A mass balance modeling approach. Limnology and Oceanography. 66 (6), 2535-2546 (2021).
  3. Kemp, W. M., et al. Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 303, 1-29 (2005).
  4. Brush, M. J., Malone, T. C., Malej, A., Faganeli, F., et al. . Coastal Ecosystems in Transition: A Comparative Analysis of the Northern Adriatic and Chesapeake Bay. Chapter 5, (2021).
  5. Howarth, R. W., Marino, R. Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems: Evolving views over three decades. Limnology and Oceanography. 51 (1 part 2), 364-376 (2006).
  6. Paerl, H. W. Controlling eutrophication along the freshwater-marine continuum: Dual nutrient (N and P) reductions are essential. Estuaries and Coasts. 32, 593-601 (2009).
  7. Kim, J. S., Chapman, P., Rowe, G., DiMarco, S. F. Categorizing zonal productivity on the continental shelf with nutrient-salinity ratios. Journal of Marine Systems. 206, 103336 (2020).
  8. Rowe, G. T., Chapman, P. Continental shelf hypoxia: Some nagging questions. Gulf of Mexico Science. 20 (2), 153-160 (2002).
  9. Nixon, S. W. Eutrophication and the macroscope. Hydrobiologia. 629, 5-19 (2009).
  10. Barbier, E. B., et al. The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monographs. 81 (2), 169-193 (2011).
  11. Cloern, J. E., Foster, S. Q., Kleckner, A. E. Phytoplankton primary production in the world's estuarinecoastal ecosystem. Biogeosciences. 11 (9), 2477-2501 (2014).
  12. Codiga, D. L., Stoffel, H. E., Oviatt, C. A., Schmidt, C. E. Managed nitrogen load decrease reduces chlorophyll and hypoxia in warming temperate urban estuary. Frontiers in Marine Science. 9, 930347 (2022).
  13. Sigman, D. M., Hain, M. P. The biological productivity of the ocean. Nature Education Knowledge. 3 (10), 21 (2012).
  14. Kremer, J. N., et al. Simulating property exchange in estuarine ecosystem models at ecologically appropriate scales. Ecological Modelling. 221 (7), 1080-1088 (2010).
  15. Kim, J. S., Chapman, P., Rowe, G., DiMarco, S. F., Thornton, D. C. O. Implications of different nitrogen input sources for potential production and carbon flux estimates in the coastal Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and Korean Peninsula coastal waters. Ocean Science. 16, 45-63 (2020).
  16. Lake, S. J., Brush, M. J. The contribution of microphytobenthos to total productivity in upper Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 95 (2-3), 289-297 (2011).
  17. Brush, M. J., Nixon, S. W. Modeling the role of macroalgae in a shallow sub-estuary of Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). Ecological Modelling. 221 (7), 1065-1079 (2010).
  18. Deacutis, C. F., Murray, D., Prell, W., Saarman, E., Korhun, L. Hypoxia in the upper half of Narragansett Bay, RI, during August 2001 and 2002. Northeastern Naturalist. 13 (Special Issue 4), 173-198 (2006).
  19. Oviatt, C., et al. Managed nutrient reduction impacts on nutrient concentrations, water clarity, primary production, and hypoxia in a north temperate estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 199, 25-34 (2017).
  20. Boesch, D. F. Barriers and bridges in abating coastal eutrophication. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6, 123 (2019).
  21. Oviatt, C. A., Keller, A. A., Reed, L. Annual primary production in Narragansett Bay with no bay-wide winter-spring phytoplankton bloom. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 54, 1013-1026 (2002).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved