Published: October 27th, 2016
This article describes a novel method to estimate proprioceptive drift on a 2D plane using the mirror illusion and combining a psychophysical procedure with an analysis using machine learning.
Proprioceptive drift, which is a perceptual shift in body-part position from the unseen real body to a visible body-like image, has been measured as the behavioral correlate for the sense of ownership. Previously, the estimation of proprioceptive drift was limited to one spatial dimension, such as height, width, or depth. As the hand can move freely in 3D, measuring proprioceptive drift in only one dimension is not sufficient for the estimation of the drift in real life situations. In this article, we provide a novel method to estimate proprioceptive drift on a 2D plane using the mirror illusion by combining an objective behavioral measurement (hand position tracking) and subjective, phenomenological assessment (subjective assessment of hand position and questionnaire) with a sophisticated machine learning approach. This technique permits not only an investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the sense of ownership and agency but also assists in the rehabilitation of a missing or paralyzed limb and in the design rules of real-time control systems with a self-body-like usability, in which the operator controls the system as if it were part of his/her own body.
In recent years, research about the sense or experience of the self-body, that is, one's own body, has increased in the context of embodiment. Embodiment refers to the idea or concept of having a physical or virtual body that can interact with the environment, such as reaching, grasping, and touching. For instance, humans can touch an object or another human positioned in the environment by moving their own body, in this case their own arm and hand. Nowadays, this interaction or communication is not limited to using one's own natural body. Due to inventions and development of human-like robots or avatars in the virtual world, the natural human body can be subs....
All aspects of the experiment were approved by the Ethical Committee of Tokyo Institute of Technology.
1. Experimental Setup
Representative results from a previous study are presented to illustrate the method16. Figure 3A shows that the area shapes where the participant could not detect the spatial offset between left and right hand position differed between the conditions with (mirror) and without (blackboard) visual feedback. Figure 3B shows that area sizes in the condition with visual feedback are significantly larger than in the condition without visual feedback .......
We demonstrate a method to estimate proprioceptive drift in a 2D plane during the mirror illusion using SVM and to compare the result with questionnaire responses for sense of ownership and agency. This novel method revealed that the required offset between visual and proprioceptive feedback to maintain proprioceptive drift is approximately 10 cm and that this offset closely overlaps with the offset required to maintain the feeling of ownership and agency.
Note that the most critical step of t.......
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