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Representative Results






Primary Outcome Assessment in a Pig Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Published: October 14th, 2016



1Department of Experimental Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 2Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 4Interuniversity Cardiology Institutes of the Netherlands (ICIN)

Reliable and accurate outcome assessment is the key for translation of preclinical therapies into clinical treatment. The current paper describes how to assess three clinically relevant primary outcome parameters of cardiac performance and damage in a pig acute myocardial infarction model.

Mortality after acute myocardial infarction remains substantial and is associated with significant morbidity, like heart failure. Novel therapeutics are therefore required to confine cardiac damage, promote survival and reduce the disease burden of heart failure. Large animal experiments are an essential part in the translational process from experimental to clinical therapies. To optimize clinical translation, robust and representative outcome measures are mandatory. The present manuscript aims to address this need by describing the assessment of three clinically relevant outcome modalities in a pig acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model: infarct size in relation to area at risk (IS/AAR) staining, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and admittance-based pressure-volume (PV) loops. Infarct size is the main determinant driving the transition from AMI to heart failure and can be quantified by IS/AAR staining. Echocardiography is a reliable and robust tool in the assessment of global and regional cardiac function in clinical cardiology. Here, a method for three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) in pigs is provided. Extensive insight into cardiac performance can be obtained by admittance-based pressure-volume (PV) loops, including intrinsic parameters of myocardial function that are pre- and afterload independent. Combined with a clinically feasible experimental study protocol, these outcome measures provide researchers with essential information to determine whether novel therapeutic strategies could yield promising targets for future testing in clinical studies.

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) accounts for about 50% of all heart failure cases, affecting an estimated 1 - 2% of people in the western world1. Its most prevalent cause is acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As acute mortality after AMI has declined significantly due to increased awareness and improved treatment options, emphasis has shifted towards its chronic sequelae; the most prominent being HFrEF2,3. Together with increasing health care costs4, the growing epidemic of heart failure stresses the need for novel diagnostics and therapies, which can be studied in a highly translational porcine model of adverse re....

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All animal experiments were approved by the Ethical Committee on Animal Experimentation of the University Medical Center Utrecht (Utrecht, the Netherlands) and conform to the 'Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals'.

NOTE: The protocol to perform a closed-chest balloon occlusion is not part of the current manuscript and is described in detail elsewhere5. In short, pigs (60 - 70 kg) are subjected to 75 min transluminal balloon occlusion of the midportion of the left.......

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3D Transesophageal Echocardiography

3D transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) can be used for the assessment of global cardiac function. After AMI, global cardiac function differs from healthy baseline values. In particular, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreases from 59 ± 4% to 37 ± 6% after one week of reperfusion (n = 10) (GPJ van Hout, 2015). An increase in end-systolic volume (51 &.......

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Cardiac remodeling is largely depending on myocardial infarct size and the quality of myocardial infarct repair6,26. To assess the former in a standardized manner, the present manuscript provides an elegant method of in vivo infusion of Evans blue combined with ex vivo TTC staining, which has been validated and extensively used8,16,27,28. This method allows for quantification of the area at risk (AAR) and infarct size in relation to AAR16. The current approach .......

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The authors gratefully acknowledge Marlijn Jansen, Joyce Visser, Grace Croft, Martijn van Nieuwburg, Danny Elbersen and Evelyn Velema for their excellent technical support during the animal experiments.


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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography
iE33 ultrasound device Philips -
X7-2t transducer Philips -
Aquasonic® 100 ultrasound transmission gel Parker Laboratories Inc. 01-34 Alternative product can be used
Battery handle type C (laryngoscope handle) Riester 12303
Ri-Standard Miller blade MIL 4 (laryngoscope blade) Riester 12225
Qlab 10.0 (3DQ Advanced) analysis software Philips -
Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Pressure-volume loop acquisition
Cardiac defibrillator Philips
0.9% saline Braun
8F Percutaneous Sheath Introducer Set Arrow CP-08803 Alternative product can be used
9F Radifocus® Introducer II Standard Kit  Terumo RS*A90K10SQ Alternative product can be used
8F Fogarty catheter Edward Life Sciences 62080814F Alternative product can be used
7F Criticath™ SP5107H TD catheter (Swan-Ganz) Becton Dickinson (BD) 680078 Alternative product can be used
Ultraview SL Patient Monitor and Invasive Command Module (external cardiac output device) Spacelabs Healthcare 91387 Alternative product can be used
ADVantage system™ Transonic SciSense -
7F tetra-polar admittance catheter (7.0 VSL Pigtail / no lumen) Transonic SciSense -
Multi-channel acquisition system (Iworx 404) Iworx -
Labscribe V2.0 analysis software Iworx - Alternative product can be used
Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Infarct size / area-at-risk quantification
Diathermy - Alternative product can be used
Lebsch knife - Alternative product can be used
Hammer - Alternative product can be used
Bone marrow wax Syneture Alternative product can be used
Klinkenberg scissors - Alternative product can be used
Retractor - Alternative product can be used
Surgical scissors -
7F Percutaneous Sheath Introducer Set  Arrow CP-08703 Alternative product can be used
8F Percutaneous Sheath Introducer Set  Arrow CP-08803 Alternative product can be used
7F JL4 guiding catheter  Boston Scientific H749 34357-662 Alternative product can be used
8F JL4 guiding catheter  Boston Scientific H749 34358-662  Alternative product can be used
COPILOT Bleedback Control Valves  Abbott Vascular 1003331 Alternative product can be used
BD Connecta™  Franklin Lakes 394995 Alternative product can be used
Contrast agent Telebrix
Persuader 9 Steerable Guidewire 9 (0.014", 180 cm, straight tip), hydrophilic coating Medtronic Inc. 9PSDR180HS Alternative product can be used
SAPPHIRE™ Coronary Dilatation Catheter (PTCA balloon suitable for the size of the particular coronary artery (2.75 - 3.25 mm)) OrbusNeich 103-3015 Alternative product can be used
Evans Blue  Sigma-Aldrich E2129-100G Toxic. Alternative product can be used
2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) Sigma-Aldrich T8877-100G Irritant. Alternative product can be used
9V battery - -
Ruler - -
Photocamera Sony -
ImageJ National Institutes of Health - Alternative product can be used

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