JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In





Representative Results






Electrospray Deposition of Uniform Thickness Ge23Sb7S70 and As40S60 Chalcogenide Glass Films

Published: August 19th, 2016



1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, 4College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), University of Central Florida, 5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 6Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 7Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

A method of uniform thickness solution-derived chalcogenide glass film deposition is demonstrated using computer numerical controlled motion of a single-nozzle electrospray.

Solution-based electrospray film deposition, which is compatible with continuous, roll-to-roll processing, is applied to chalcogenide glasses. Two chalcogenide compositions are demonstrated: Ge23Sb7S70 and As40S60, which have both been studied extensively for planar mid-infrared (mid-IR) microphotonic devices. In this approach, uniform thickness films are fabricated through the use of computer numerical controlled (CNC) motion. Chalcogenide glass (ChG) is written over the substrate by a single nozzle along a serpentine path. Films were subjected to a series of heat treatments between 100 °C and 200 °C under vacuum to drive off residual solvent and densify the films. Based on transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and surface roughness measurements, both compositions were found to be suitable for the fabrication of planar devices operating in the mid-IR region. Residual solvent removal was found to be much quicker for the As40S60 film as compared to Ge23Sb7S70. Based on the advantages of electrospray, direct printing of a gradient refractive index (GRIN) mid-IR transparent coating is envisioned, given the difference in refractive index of the two compositions in this study.

Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) are well-known for their broad infrared transmission and amenability to uniform thickness, blanket film deposition 1-3. On-chip waveguides, resonators, and other optical components can then be formed from this film by lithography techniques, and then subsequent polymer coating to fabricate microphotonic devices 4-5. One key application that we seek to develop is small, inexpensive, highly sensitive chemical sensing devices operating in the mid-IR, where many organic species have optical signatures 6. Microphotonic chemical sensors can be deployed in harsh environments, such as near nuclear reactors, where ex....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Caution: Please consult Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) when working with these chemicals, and be aware of the other hazards such as high voltage, mechanical motion of the deposition system, and high temperatures of the hotplate and furnaces utilized.

Note: Begin this protocol with bulk chalcogenide glass, which is prepared by well-known melt-quench techniques 2.

1. Preparation of ChG Solutions

Note: Two solutions are utilized in this study, Ge

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

A schematic representation of the serpentine path utilized to obtain uniform thickness films with single nozzle electrospray is shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows an example transmission FTIR spectrum of a partially-cured As40S60 film made with serpentine motion of the spray, as well as the spectrum of pure ethanolamine solvent. From the information that can be obtained from the FTIR spectra such as shown in Figure 3,.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

At the beginning of a uniform thickness film deposited with serpentine motion of the spray relative to the substrate, the film thickness profile is increasing. Once the distance travelled in the y-direction exceeds the diameter of the spray (upon arrival at the substrate), the flow rate becomes approximately equivalent for every point on the substrate, and thickness uniformity is achieved. To determine the appropriate deposition parameters of a uniform thickness electrosprayed film, theoretical film thickness, T, is util.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Funding for this work was provided by Defense Threat Reduction Agency contracts HDTRA1-10-1-0073: HDTRA1-13-1-0001.


Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Ethanolamine Sigma-Aldrich 411000-100ML 99.5% purity
Si wafer University Wafer 1708 Double side polished, undoped
Syringe Sigma-Aldrich 20788 Hamilton 700 series, 50 microliter volume
Syringe pump Chemyx Nanojet
CNC milling machine MIB instruments CNC 3020
Power supply Acopian P015HP4 AC-DC power supply, 15 kV, 4 mA

  1. Novak, J., et al. Evolution of the structure and properties of solution-based Ge23Sb7S70 thin films during heat treatment. Mat. Res. Bull. 48, 1250-1255 (2013).
  2. Musgraves, J. D., et al. Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques. Acta Materiala. 59, 5032-5039 (2011).
  3. Zha, Y., Waldmann, M., Arnold, C. B. A review on solution processing of chalcogenide glasses for optical components. Opt. Mat. Exp. 3 (9), 1259-1272 (2013).
  4. Chiles, J., et al. Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching. Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 11110 (2015).
  5. Hu, J., et al. Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators. Opt. Lett. 38 (8), 761-763 (2008).
  6. Singh, V., et al. Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 014603 (2014).
  7. Novak, S., Johnston, D. E., Li, C., Deng, W., Richardson, K. Deposition of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass films by electrospray. Thin Solid Films. 588, 56-60 (2015).
  8. Kovalenko, M. V., Schaller, R. D., Jarzab, D., Loi, M. A., Talapin, D. V. Inorganically functionalized PbS-CdS colloidal nanocrystals: integration into amorphous chalcogenide glass and luminescent properties. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 2457-2460 (2012).
  9. Novak, S., et al. Incorporation of luminescent CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots and PbS quantum dots into solution-derived chalcogenide glass films. Opt. Mat. Exp. 3 (6), 729-738 (2013).
  10. Lu, C., Almeida, J. M. P., Yao, N., Arnold, C. Fabrication of uniformly dispersed nanoparticle-doped chalcogenide glass. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 261906 (2014).
  11. Zhao, X. -. Y., et al. Enhancement of the performance of organic solar cells by electrospray deposition with optimal solvent system. Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 121, 119-125 (2014).
  12. Novak, S. . Electrospray deposition of chalcogenide glass films for gradient refractive index and quantum dot incorporation [dissertation]. , (2015).
  13. Tolansky, S. New contributions to interferometry, with applications to crystal studies. J. Sci. Instrum. 22 (9), 161-167 (1945).
  14. Archer, R. J. Determination of the properties of films on silicon by the method of ellipsometry. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52 (9), 970-977 (1962).
  15. Hu, J., et al. Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow. Opt. Exp. 18 (2), 1469-1478 (2010).
  16. Hu, J., et al. Exploration of waveguide fabrications from thermally evaporated Ge-Sb-S glass films. Opt. Mater. 30, 1560-1566 (2008).
  17. Song, S., Dua, J., Arnold, C. B. Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films. Opt. Exp. 18 (6), 5472-5480 (2010).
  18. Deng, W., Klemic, J. F., Li, X., Reed, M. A., Gomez, A. Increase of electrospray throughput using multiplexed microfabricated sources for the scalable generation of monodisperse droplets. J. Aerosol. Sci. 37 (6), 696-714 (2006).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo


Terms of Use





Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved