JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Neuroscience

Analyzing Neural Activity and Connectivity Using Intracranial EEG Data with SPM Software

Published: October 30th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58187

1Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, 2Brain Activity Imaging Center, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, 3Department of Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry, Habilitation and Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 4National Epilepsy Center, 5Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, 6Department of System Neuroscience, Sapporo Medical University, 7Faculty of Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University
* These authors contributed equally

We present two analytical protocols that can be used to analyze intracranial electroencephalography data using the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software: time-frequency statistical parametric mapping analysis for neural activity, and dynamic causal modeling of induced responses for intra- and inter-regional connectivity.

Measuring neural activity and connectivity associated with cognitive functions at high spatial and temporal resolutions is an important goal in cognitive neuroscience. Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) can directly record electrical neural activity and has the unique potential to accomplish this goal. Traditionally, averaging analysis has been applied to analyze intracranial EEG data; however, several new techniques are available for depicting neural activity and intra- and inter-regional connectivity. Here, we introduce two analytical protocols we recently applied to analyze intracranial EEG data using the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software: time-frequency SPM analysis for neural activity and dynamic causal modeling of induced responses for intra- and inter-regional connectivity. We report our analysis of intracranial EEG data during the observation of faces as representative results. The results revealed that the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) showed gamma-band activity at very early stages (110 ms) in response to faces, and both the IOG and amygdala showed rapid intra- and inter-regional connectivity using various types of oscillations. These analytical protocols have the potential to identify the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive functions with high spatial and temporal profiles.

Measuring neural activity and connectivity associated with cognitive functions at high spatial and temporal resolutions is one of the primary goals of cognitive neuroscience. However, accomplishing this goal is not easy. One popular method used to record neural activity is functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although functional MRI offers several advantages, such as a high spatial resolution at the millimeter level and non-invasive recording, a clear disadvantage of functional MRI is its low temporal resolution. In addition, functional MRI measures blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals, which only indirectly reflect electric neural activity. Popular electrophy....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Our study was approved by the local institutional ethics committee.

1. Basic Information

NOTE: The analytical protocols can be applied to various types of data without any restrictions as to specific participants, electrodes, reference methods, or electrode locations. In our example, we tested six patients suffering from pharmacologically intractable focal epilepsy. We tested patients who had no epileptic foci in the regions of interest.

  1. Record intracran.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Using the protocol presented herein, we analyzed intracranial EEG data in response to faces18,19. We recorded data from six patients during the passive viewing of faces, mosaics, and houses in upright and inverted orientations. The contrasts of upright faces versus upright mosaics and upright faces versus upright houses revealed the face effect (i.e., face-specific brain activity relative to other object.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The analytical protocols for intracranial EEG data using the SPM software introduced herein have several advantages compared with functional MRI. First, the protocols can depict neural activation at a high temporal resolution. Therefore, the results indicate whether the cognitive correlates of neural activation are implemented at early or late stages of processing. In our example, the face effect was identified during the very early stages (i.e., 110 ms) of visual processing. In addition, the comparison of the t.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This study was supported by funds from the Benesse Corporation, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers (LZ008), the Organization for Promoting Research in Neurodevelopmental Disorders, and the JSPS KAKENHI (15K04185; 18K03174).

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
none

  1. Lachaux, J. P., Rudrauf, D., Kahane, P. Intracranial EEG and human brain mapping. Journal of Physiology - Paris. 97 (4-6), 613-628 (2003).
  2. Kilner, J. M., Kiebel, S. J., Friston, K. J. Applications of random field theory to electrophysiology. Neuroscience Letters. 374 (3), 174-178 (2005).
  3. Canolty, R. T., Knight, R. T. The functional role of cross-frequency coupling. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 14 (11), 506-515 (2010).
  4. Chen, C. C., et al. A dynamic causal model for evoked and induced responses. Neuroimage. 59 (1), 340-348 (2012).
  5. Friston, K. J., Harrison, L., Penny, W. Dynamic causal modelling. Neuroimage. 19 (4), 1273-1302 (2003).
  6. Canolty, R. T., et al. High gamma power is phase-locked to theta oscillations in human neocortex. Science. 313, 1626-1628 (2006).
  7. Tort, A. B., et al. Dynamic cross-frequency couplings of local field potential oscillations in rat striatum and hippocampus during performance of a T-maze task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (51), 20517-20522 (2008).
  8. Voytek, B., et al. Shifts in gamma phase-amplitude coupling frequency from theta to alpha over posterior cortex during visual tasks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 4, 191 (2010).
  9. Mukamel, R., Fried, I. Human intracranial recordings and cognitive neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology. 63, 511-537 (2012).
  10. Parvizi, J., Kastner, S. Promises and limitations of human intracranial electroencephalography. Nature Neuroscience. 21, 474-483 (2018).
  11. Hill, N. J., et al. Recording human electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for neuroscientific research and real-time functional cortical mapping. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (64), 3993 (2012).
  12. Herrmann, C. S., Rach, S., Vosskuhl, J., Strüber, D. Time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials: A brief tutorial. Brain Topography. 27 (4), 438-450 (2014).
  13. Litvak, V., et al. EEG and MEG data analysis in SPM8. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience. 2011, 852961 (2011).
  14. Mihara, T., Baba, K. Combined use of subdural and depth electrodes. Epilepsy Surgery. , 613-621 (2001).
  15. Kilner, J., Bott, L., Posada, A. Modulations in the degree of synchronization during ongoing oscillatory activity in the human brain. European Journal of Neuroscience. 21, 2547-2554 (2005).
  16. Lachaux, J. P., Rodriguez, E., Martinerie, J., Varela, F. J. Measuring phase synchrony in brain signals. Human Brain Mapping. 8 (4), 194-208 (1999).
  17. Stephan, K. E., Penny, W. D., Daunizeau, J., Moran, R. J., Friston, K. J. Bayesian model selection for group studies. Neuroimage. 46 (4), 1004-1017 (2009).
  18. Sato, W., et al. Rapid, high-frequency, and theta-coupled gamma oscillations in the inferior occipital gyrus during face processing. Cortex. 60, 52-68 (2014).
  19. Sato, W., et al. Bidirectional electric communication between the inferior occipital gyrus and the amygdala during face processing. Human Brain Mapping. 38 (2), 4511-4524 (2017).
  20. Bartlett, J. C., Searcy, J., Abdi, H. What are the routes to face recognition?. Perception of faces, objects, and scenes: Analytic and holistic processing. , 21-52 (2003).
  21. Bouvier, S. E., Engel, S. A. Behavioral deficits and cortical damage loci in cerebral achromatopsia. Cerebral Cortex. 16 (2), 183-191 (2006).
  22. Pitcher, D., Walsh, V., Duchaine, B. The role of the occipital face area in the cortical face perception network. Experimental Brain Research. 209 (4), 481-493 (2011).
  23. Latini, F. New insights in the limbic modulation of visual inputs: The role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the Li-Am bundle. Neurosurgical Review. 38 (1), 179-189 (2015).
  24. Davies-Thompson, J., Andrews, T. J. Intra- and interhemispheric connectivity between face-selective regions in the human brain. Journal of Neurophysiology. 108 (11), 3087-3095 (2012).
  25. Jerbi, K., et al. Saccade related gamma-band activity in intracerebral EEG: dissociating neural from ocular muscle activity. Brain Topography. 22, 18-23 (2009).
  26. Buzsáki, G., Silva, F. L. High frequency oscillations in the intact brain. Progress in Neurobiology. 98, 241-249 (2012).
  27. Benayoun, M., Kohrman, M., Cowan, J., van Drongelen, W. EEG, temporal correlations, and avalanches. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. 27 (6), 458-464 (2010).
  28. Herrmann, C. S., Grigutsch, M., Busch, N. A. EEG oscillations and wavelet analysis. Event-related potentials: A methods handbook. , 229-259 (2005).
  29. Pigorini, A., et al. Time-frequency spectral analysis of TMS-evoked EEG oscillations by means of Hilbert-Huang transform. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 198 (2), 236-245 (2011).
  30. Holdgraf, C. R., et al. Rapid tuning shifts in human auditory cortex enhance speech intelligibility. Nature communications. 7, 13654 (2016).
  31. Aru, J., et al. Untangling cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 31, 51-61 (2015).
  32. Gerber, E. M., Sadeh, B., Ward, A., Knight, R. T., Deouell, L. Y. Non-sinusoidal activity can produce cross-frequency coupling in cortical signals in the absence of functional interaction between neural sources. PLoS One. 11 (12), e0167351 (2016).
  33. Cole, S. R., Voytek, B. Brain oscillations and the importance of waveform shape. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 21 (2), 137-149 (2017).
  34. Mikulan, E., et al. Intracranial high-γ connectivity distinguishes wakefulness from sleep. Neuroimage. 169, 265-277 (2018).
  35. Zheng, J., et al. Amygdala-hippocampal dynamics during salient information processing. Nature communications. 8, 14413 (2017).
  36. Maris, E., Oostenveld, R. Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 164 (1), 177-190 (2007).
  37. Stolk, A., et al. Integrated analysis of anatomical and electrophysiological human intracranial data. Nature Protocols. 13, 1699-1723 (2018).
  38. Friston, K. J., et al. Dynamic causal modelling revisited. NeuroImage. , (2017).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved