JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Biochemistry

Profiling Volatile Compounds in Blackcurrant Fruit using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Published: June 9th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62421

1Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Campus de Teatinos, Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora”, Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

A headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas-chromatography platform is described here for fast, reliable, and semi-automated volatile identification and quantification in ripe blackcurrant fruits. This technique can be used to increase knowledge about fruit aroma and to select cultivars with enhanced flavor for the purpose of breeding.

There is an increasing interest in measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by ripe fruits for the purpose of breeding varieties or cultivars with enhanced organoleptic characteristics and thus, to increase consumer acceptance. High-throughput metabolomic platforms have been recently developed to quantify a wide range of metabolites in different plant tissues, including key compounds responsible for fruit taste and aroma quality (volatilomics). A method using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described here for the identification and quantification of VOCs emitted by ripe blackcurrant fruits, a berry highly appreciated for its flavor and health benefits.

Ripe fruits of blackcurrant plants (Ribes nigrum) were harvested and directly frozen in liquid nitrogen. After tissue homogenization to produce a fine powder, samples were thawed and immediately mixed with sodium chloride solution. Following centrifugation, the supernatant was transferred into a headspace glass vial containing sodium chloride. VOCs were then extracted using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber and a gas chromatograph coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Volatile quantification was performed on the resulting ion chromatograms by integrating peak area, using a specific m/z ion for each VOC. Correct VOC annotation was confirmed by comparing retention times and mass spectra of pure commercial standards run under the same conditions as the samples. More than 60 VOCs were identified in ripe blackcurrant fruits grown in contrasting European locations. Among the identified VOCs, key aroma compounds, such as terpenoids and C6 volatiles, can be used as biomarkers for blackcurrant fruit quality. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed, including prospective improvements. Furthermore, the use of controls for batch correction and minimization of drift intensity have been emphasized.

Flavor is an essential quality trait for any fruit, impacting consumer acceptance and thus significantly affecting marketability. Flavor perception involves a combination of the taste and olfactory systems and depends chemically on the presence and concentration of a wide range of compounds that accumulate in edible plant parts, or in case of VOCs, are emitted by the ripe fruit1,2. While traditional breeding has focused on agronomic traits such as yield and pest resistance, fruit quality trait improvement, including flavor, has long been neglected due to the genetic complexity and the difficulty to properly ph....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Fruit harvesting

  1. Grow between 4 to 6 plants per genotype and/or treatment to ensure sufficient fruit material and variability.
  2. If possible, harvest the samples on the same date; if there is not enough fruit material, pool together samples harvested on different dates.
    NOTE: It is recommended that the harvest time (morning, noon, afternoon) remains approximately identical as VOC profiles are affected by daytime/circadian rhythm28,29.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

High-throughput VOC profiling in a large set of fruit crops grown under different conditions or locations or belonging to distinct genotypes is necessary for accurate aroma phenotyping. Here, a fast and semi-automated HS-SPME/GC-MS platform for relative VOC quantification in blackcurrant cultivars is presented. VOC detection and identification were based on a library that was developed to profile berry fruit species (Table 1). A typical ripe blackcurrant fruit volatile profile (total ion chromatogram) ob.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Breeding for fruit aroma has long been hindered by the complex genetics and biochemistry underlying the synthesis of volatile compounds and the lack of technologies for proper phenotyping. However, recent advances in metabolomic platforms, combined with genomic tools, are finally allowing the identification of the metabolites responsible for consumer preferences and to breed crops with improved flavor3. While most progress has been achieved in the model fruit, tomato9,.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The authors thank the Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación from University of Malaga for HS-SPME/GC-MS measurements. We acknowledge the assistance of Sara Fernández-Palacios Campos in volatile quantification. We also thanks GoodBerry´s consortium members for providing the fruit material.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
10 mL screw top headspace vials Thermo Scientific 10-HSV
18 mm screw cap Silicone/PTFE Thermo Scientific 18-MSC
5 mL Tube with HDPE screw cap VWR 216-0153
Centrifuge Thermo Scientific 75002415
Methanol for HPLC Merck 34860-1L-R
N-pentadecane (D32, 98%) Cambridge Isotope Laboratories DLM-1283-1
Sodium chloride Merck S9888
SPME fiber PDMS/DVB Merck 57345-U
Stainless grinding jars for TissueLyser Qiagen 69985
TissueLyser II Qiagen 85300 Can be subsituted by mortar and pestle or cryogenic mill
Trace GC gas chromatograph-ITQ900 ion trap mass spectrometer Thermo Scientific
Triplus RSH autosampler with automated SPME device Thermo Scientific 1R77010-0450
Water for HPLC Merck 270733-1L
Xcalibur 4.2 SP1 Thermo Scientific software

  1. Klee, H. J. Improving the flavor of fresh fruits: Genomics, biochemistry, and biotechnology. New Phytologist. 187 (1), 44-56 (2010).
  2. Ferrão, L. F. V., et al. Genome-wide association of volatiles reveals candidate loci for blueberry flavor. New Phytologist. 226 (6), 1725-1737 (2020).
  3. Klee, H. J., Tieman, D. M. The genetics of fruit flavour preferences. Nature Reviews Genetics. 19, 347-356 (2018).
  4. Vallarino, J. G., et al. Identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for primary metabolite content in strawberry fruit. Horticulture Research. 6, 4 (2019).
  5. Jung, K., Fastowski, O., Poplacean, I., Engel, K. H. Analysis and sensory evaluation of volatile constituents of fresh blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65 (43), 9475-9487 (2017).
  6. Vallarino, J. G., et al. Genetic diversity of strawberry germplasm using metabolomic biomarkers. Scientific Reports. 8, 14386 (2018).
  7. Zhang, W., et al. Insights into the major aroma-active compounds in clear red raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L. cv. Heritage) by molecular sensory science approaches. Food Chemistry. 336, 127721 (2021).
  8. Farneti, B., et al. Exploring blueberry aroma complexity by chromatographic and direct-injection spectrometric techniques. Frontiers in Plant Science. 8, 617 (2017).
  9. Tikunov, Y., et al. The genetic and functional analysis of flavor in commercial tomato: the FLORAL4 gene underlies a QTL for floral aroma volatiles in tomato fruit. The Plant Journal. 103 (3), 1189-1204 (2020).
  10. Tieman, D., et al. A chemical genetic roadmap to improved tomato flavor. Science. 355 (6323), 391-394 (2017).
  11. Sánchez-Sevilla, J. F., Cruz-Rus, E., Valpuesta, V., Botella, M. A., Amaya, I. Deciphering gamma-decalactone biosynthesis in strawberry fruit using a combination of genetic mapping, RNA-Seq and eQTL analyses. BMC Genomics. 15, 218 (2014).
  12. Kumar, S., et al. Genome-wide scans reveal genetic architecture of apple flavour volatiles. Molecular Breeding. 35, 118 (2015).
  13. Bauchet, G., et al. Identification of major loci and genomic regions controlling acid and volatile content in tomato fruit: implications for flavor improvement. New Phytologist. 215 (2), 624-641 (2017).
  14. Sánchez, G., et al. An integrative ' omics' approach identifies new candidate genes to impact aroma volatiles in peach fruit. BMC Genomics. 14, 343 (2013).
  15. Hummer, K. E., Dale, A. Horticulture of Ribes. Forest Pathology. 40 (3-4), 251-263 (2010).
  16. Vagiri, M., et al. Phenols and ascorbic acid in black currants (Ribes nigrum L.): Variation due to genotype, location, and year. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61 (39), 9298-9306 (2013).
  17. Marsol-Vall, A., Kortesniemi, M., Karhu, S. T., Kallio, H., Yang, B. Profiles of volatile compounds in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars with a special focus on the influence of growth latitude and weather conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 66 (28), 7485-7495 (2018).
  18. Varming, C., Petersen, M. A., Poll, L. Comparison of isolation methods for the determination of important aroma compounds in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice, using nasal impact frequency profiling. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (6), 1647-1652 (2004).
  19. Andersson, J., von Sydow, E. The aroma of black currants I. Higher boiling compounds. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 18, 1105-1114 (1964).
  20. Andersson, J., von Sydow, E. The aroma of black currants. III. Chemical characterization of different varieties and stages of ripeness by gas chromatography. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 20, 529-535 (1966).
  21. Andersson, J., von Sydow, E. The aroma of black currants II. Lower boiling compounds. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 20, 522-528 (1966).
  22. Marsol-Vall, A., Laaksonen, O., Yang, B. Effects of processing and storage conditions on volatile composition and odor characteristics of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) juices. Food Chemistry. 293, 151-160 (2019).
  23. Del Castillo, M. L. R., Dobson, G. Varietal differences in terpene composition of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L) berries by solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 82 (13), 1510-1515 (2002).
  24. Azzi-Achkouty, S., Estephan, N., Ouaini, N., Rutledge, D. N. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for wine volatile analysis. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57 (10), 2009-2020 (2017).
  25. Vallarino, J. G., Antonio, C., et al. Acquisition of volatiles compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plant Metabolomics: Methods and Protocols. 1778, 225-239 (2018).
  26. Moreira, N., Lopes, P., Cabral, M., Guedes de Pinho, P. HS-SPME/GC-MS methodologies for the analysis of volatile compounds in cork material. European Food Research and Technology. 242, 457-466 (2016).
  27. Rambla, J. L., López-Gresa, M. P., Bellés, J. M., Granell, A., Alonso, J. M., Stepanova, A. N. Metabolomic profiling of plant tissues. Plant Functional Genomics and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology. 1284, 221-235 (2015).
  28. Abbas, F., et al. Volatile terpenoids: multiple functions, biosynthesis, modulation and manipulation by genetic engineering. Planta. 246 (5), 803-816 (2017).
  29. Kolosova, N., Gorenstein, N., Kish, C. M., Dudareva, N. Regulation of circadian methyl benzoate emission in diurnally and nocturnally emitting plants. Plant Cell. 13 (10), 2333-2347 (2001).
  30. Dudareva, N., Pichersky, E., Gershenzon, J. Biochemistry of plant volatiles. Plant Physiology. 135 (4), 1893-1902 (2004).
  31. Borges, R. M., Ranganathan, Y., Krishnan, A., Ghara, M., Pramanik, G. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process. Acta Oecologica. 37 (6), 611-618 (2011).
  32. Jarret, D. A., et al. A transcript and metabolite atlas of blackcurrant fruit development highlights hormonal regulation and reveals the role of key transcription factors. Frontiers in Plant Science. 9, 1-22 (2018).
  33. Li, B., Lecourt, J., Bishop, G. Advances in non-destructive early assessment of fruit ripeness towards defining optimal time of harvest and yield prediction-a review. Plants. 7 (1), 3 (2018).
  34. Ul-Hassan, M. N., Zainal, Z., Ismail, I. Green leaf volatiles: Biosynthesis, biological functions and their applications in biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 13 (6), 727-739 (2015).
  35. Gaston, A., Osorio, S., Denoyes, B., Rothan, C. Applying the Solanaceae strategies to strawberry crop improvement. Trends in Plant Science. 25 (2), 130-140 (2020).
  36. Gilbert, J. L., et al. Identifying breeding priorities for blueberry flavor using biochemical, sensory, and genotype by environment analyses. PLoS ONE. 10 (9), 0138494 (2015).
  37. Bueno, M., Resconi, V. C., Campo, M. M., Ferreira, V., Escudero, A. Development of a robust HS-SPME-GC-MS method for the analysis of solid food samples. Analysis of volatile compounds in fresh raw beef of differing lipid oxidation degrees. Food Chemistry. 281, 49-56 (2019).
  38. Burzynski-Chang, E. A., et al. HS-SPME-GC-MS analyses of volatiles in plant populations-quantitating compound × individual matrix effects. Molecules. 23 (10), 2436 (2018).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved