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Environment

Use of Autometallography to Localize and Semi-Quantify Silver in Cetacean Tissues

Published: October 4th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58232

1Graduate Institute of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, National Taiwan University, 2School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 3Department of Oceanography and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, 4Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University

A protocol is presented to localize Ag in cetacean liver and kidney tissues by autometallography. Furthermore, a new assay, named the cetacean histological Ag assay (CHAA) is developed to estimate the Ag concentrations in those tissues.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used in commercial products, including textiles, cosmetics, and health care items, due to their strong antimicrobial effects. They also may be released into the environment and accumulate in the ocean. Therefore, AgNPs are the major source of Ag contamination, and public awareness of the environmental toxicity of Ag is increasing. Previous studies have demonstrated the bioaccumulation (in producers) and magnification (in consumers/predators) of Ag. Cetaceans, as the apex predators of ocean, may have been negatively affected by the Ag/Ag compounds. Although the concentrations of Ag/Ag compounds in cetacean tissues can be measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), the use of ICP-MS is limited by its high capital cost and the requirement for tissue storage/preparation. Therefore, an autometallography (AMG) method with an image quantitative analysis by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue may be an adjuvant method to localize Ag distribution at the suborgan level and estimate the Ag concentration in cetacean tissues. The AMG positive signals are mainly brown to black granules of various sizes in the cytoplasm of proximal renal tubular epithelium, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells. Occasionally, some amorphous golden yellow to brown AMG positive signals are noted in the lumen and basement membrane of some proximal renal tubules. The assay for estimating the Ag concentration is named the Cetacean Histological Ag Assay (CHAA), which is a regression model established by the data from image quantitative analysis of the AMG method and ICP-MS. The use of AMG with CHAA to localize and semi-quantify heavy metals provides a convenient methodology for spatio-temporal and cross-species studies.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used in commercial products, including textiles, cosmetics, and health care items, due to their great antimicrobial effects1,2. Therefore, the production of AgNPs and the number of AgNP-containing products are increased over time3,4. However, AgNPs may be released into the environment and accumulate in the ocean5,6. They have become the major source of Ag contamination, and the public awareness of the environmental toxicity of Ag is increasing.....

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The study was performed in accordance with international guidelines, and the use of cetacean tissue samples was permitted by the Council of Agriculture of Taiwan (Research Permit 104-07.1-SB-62).

1. Tissue Sample Preparation for ICP-MS Analysis

Note: The liver and kidney tissues were collected from freshly dead and moderately autolyzed stranded cetaceans24, including 6 stranded cetaceans of 4 different species, 1 Grampus griseus (Gg), .......

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Representative images of the AMG positive signals in the cetacean liver and kidney tissues are shown in Figure 5. The AMG positive signals include variably-sized brown to black granules of various sizes in the cytoplasm of proximal renal tubular epithelium, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells. Occasionally, amorphous golden yellow to brown AMG positive signals are noted in the lumen and basement membrane of some proximal renal tubules. There is a positive correlat.......

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The purpose of the article study is to establish an adjuvant method to evaluate the Ag distribution at suborgan levels and to estimate Ag concentrations in cetacean tissues. The current protocols include 1) Determination of Ag concentrations in cetacean tissues by ICP-MS, 2) AMG analysis of pair-matched tissue samples with known Ag concentrations, 3) Establishment of the regression model (CHAA) for estimating the Ag concentrations by AMG positive values, 4) Evaluation of the accuracy and precision of CHAA, and 5) Estimat.......

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We thank the Taiwan Cetacean Stranding Network for sample collection and storage, including the Taiwan Cetacean Society, Taipei; the Cetacean Research Laboratory (Prof. Lien-Siang Chou), the Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei; the National Museum of Natural Science (Dr. Chiou-Ju Yao), Taichung; and the Marine Biology & Cetacean Research Center, National Cheng-Kung University. We also thank the Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan for their permit.

....

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
HQ Silver enhancement kit Nanoprobes #2012
Surgipath Paraplast Leica Biosystems 39601006 Paraffin
100% Ethanol Muto Pure Chemical Co., Ltd 4026
Non-Xylene Muto Pure Chemical Co., Ltd 4328
Silane coated slide Muto Pure Chemical Co., Ltd 511614
Cover glass (25 x 50 mm) Muto Pure Chemical Co., Ltd 24501
Malinol Muto Pure Chemical Co., Ltd 20092
GM Haematoxylin Staining Muto Pure Chemical Co., Ltd 3008-1
10% neutral buffered formalin solution Chin I Pao Co., Ltd ---
Tip (1000 μL) MDBio, Inc. 1000
PIPETMAN Classic P1000 Gilson, Inc. F123602
15 ml Centrifuge Tube GeneDireX, Inc. PC115-0500
Dogfish liver National Research Council of Canada DOLT-2
Dogfish muscle National Research Council of Canada DORM-2
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) PerkinElmer Inc. PE-SCIEX ELAN 6100 DRC
FreeZone 6 liter freeze dry system Labconco 7752030 For freeze drying
BRAND® SILBERBRAND volumetric flask Merck Z326283
30 mL standard vial, flat interior with 33 mm closure Savillex Corporation 200-030-12 For diagestion
Nitric acid, superpur®, 65.0% Merck 1.00441 For diagestion
Hot Plate/Stirrers Corning® PC-220 For diagestion
High Shear lab mixer Silverson SL2T For homogenization
Sterile polypropylene sample jar (250mL) Thermo Scientific™ 6186L05 For homogenization
Digital camera Nikon Corporation DS-Fi2
Light microscope Nikon Corporation ECLIPSE Ni-U
Shandon™ Finesse™ 325 manual microtome Thermo Scientific™ A78100001H
Accu-Cut® SRM™ 200 rotary microtome Sakura 1429
Microtome blade S35 FEATHER® 207500000
Slide staining dish and cover Brain Research Laboratories #3215
Steel staining rack Brain Research Laboratories #3003
Shandon embedding center Thermo Scientific™ S-EC
Shandon Citadel® tissue processor Thermo Scientific™ 69800003
Slide warmer Lab-Line Instruments 26005
Water bath Shandon Capshaw 3964
Filter paper Merck 1541-070
Prism 6.01 for windows GraphPad Software Statistic software
ImageJ National Institutes of Health
Stainless steel tissue embedding mould Shenyang Roundfin Trade Co., Ltd RD-TBM003 For paraffin emedding

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