JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Biology

Dissecting Mechanoenzymatic Properties of Processive Myosins with Ultrafast Force-Clamp Spectroscopy

Published: July 1st, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62388

1National Institute of Optics, National Research Council, 2LENS, European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, 3Physics Department, University of Florence

ERRATUM NOTICE

Important: There has been an erratum issued for this article. Read more …

Presented here is a comprehensive protocol to perform ultrafast force-clamp experiments on processive myosin-5 motors, which could be easily extended to the study of other classes of processive motors. The protocol details all the necessary steps, from the setup of the experimental apparatus to sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis.

Ultrafast force-clamp spectroscopy (UFFCS) is a single molecule technique based on laser tweezers that allows the investigation of the chemomechanics of both conventional and unconventional myosins under load with unprecedented time resolution. In particular, the possibility to probe myosin motors under constant force right after the actin-myosin bond formation, together with the high rate of the force feedback (200 kHz), has shown UFFCS to be a valuable tool to study the load dependence of fast dynamics such as the myosin working stroke. Moreover, UFFCS enables the study of how processive and non-processive myosin-actin interactions are influenced by the intensity and direction of the applied force.

By following this protocol, it will be possible to perform ultrafast force-clamp experiments on processive myosin-5 motors and on a variety of unconventional myosins. By some adjustments, the protocol could also be easily extended to the study of other classes of processive motors such as kinesins and dyneins. The protocol includes all the necessary steps, from the setup of the experimental apparatus to sample preparation, calibration procedures, data acquisition and analysis.

In the last decades optical tweezers have been a valuable tool to elucidate the mechanochemistry of protein interactions at the single molecule level, due to the striking possibility of concurrent manipulation and measurement of conformational changes and enzymatic kinetics 1,2. In particular, the capability to apply and measure forces in the range of those exerted by molecular motors in the cell, together with the capacity to measure sub-nanometer conformational changes, made optical tweezers a unique single-molecule tool for unraveling the chemomechanical properties of motor proteins and their mechanical reg....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Optical setup

NOTE: The experimental setup is composed of double optical tweezers with nanometer pointing stability and < 1% laser intensity fluctuations. Under these conditions, stability of the dumbbell at the nanometer level is guaranteed under typical trap stiffness (0.1 pN/nm) and tension (1 pN - few tens of pN). Figure 2 shows a detailed scheme of the optical setup.

  1. Optical tweezers design and construction 9,

    Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Representative data consist in position records over time as shown in Figure 4. In the position record two kinds of displacement are visible. Firstly, when the myosin motor is not interacting with the actin filament the trapped beads are moving at constant velocity against the viscous drag force of the solution showing a linear displacement oscillating within the oscillation range set by the operator in a triangular wave3 (not visible in

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Although single molecule techniques, such as the three-bead assay, are technically challenging and low throughput, UFFCS improves the detection of molecular interactions thanks to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the data. UFFCS allows the study of the load-dependence of motor proteins, with the main advantages of applying the force very rapidly upon binding of the motor to the filament to probe early and very rapid events in force production and weak binding states under controlled force; maintaining the force constant.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 871124 Laserlab-Europe, by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (FIRB “Futuro in Ricerca” 2013 Grant No. RBFR13V4M2), and by Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze. A.V. Kashchuk was supported by Human Frontier Science Program Cross-Disciplinary Fellowship LT008/2020-C.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
 Aliphatic Amine Latex Beads ThermoFisher A37362 1.0-μm diameter, 2% (w/v)
Acetone Sigma 32201
Actin polymerization buffer Cytoskeleton BSA02 10X
AODs (acousto-optic deflectors) AA Opto Electronic DTS-XY 250 Laser beam deflectors
ATP Sigma A7699
Biotinylated-BSA ThermoFisher 29130
BSA Sigma B4287
Calmodulin from porcine brain (CaM) Merck Millipore 208783
Catalase from bovine liver Sigma C40
Condenser Olympus OlympusU-AAC, Aplanat, Achromat NA 1.4, oil immersion
Creatine phosphate disodium salt tetrahydrate Sigma 27920
Creatine Phosphokinase from rabbit muscle Sigma C3755
DDs AA Opto Electronic AA.DDS.XX Two-channel digital synthesizer
DL-Dithiothreitol (DTT)/td> Sigma 43819
EGTA Sigma E4378
G-actin protein Cytoskeleton AKL99
Glucose Sigma G7528
Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger Sigma  G7141
HaloTag succinimidyl ester O2 ligand Promega P1691
High vacuum silicone grease heavy Merck Millipore 107921
KCl Sigma P9541
KH2PO4/K2HPO4 Sigma P5379/ P8281
Labview National Instruments version 8.1 Data acquisition
Labview FPGA module National Instruments version 8.1 Fast Force-Clamp
Matlab MathWorks 2016 Data analysis
MgCl2 Fluka 63020
Microscope Objective Nikon Plan-Apo 60X NA 1.2, WD 0.2 mm, water imm.
MOPS Sigma M1254
Nitrocellulose Sigma N8267 0.45 pore size
Pentyl acetate solution Sigma 46022
Pure Ethanol  Sigma 2860
QPDs UDT DLS-20 D Position Detecto
Rhodamine BSA Molecular Probes A23016
Rhodamine Phalloidin  Sigma P1951
Silica beads Bangslabs SS04N 1.21 mm, 10% solids
Sodium azide  Sigma S2002
Streptavidin protein  Sigma 189730

  1. Ashkin, A., Dziedzic, J. M., Bjorkholm, J. E., Chu, S. Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles. Optical Angular Momentum. 11 (5), 196-198 (2016).
  2. Capitanio, M., Pavone, F. S. Interrogating biology with force: Single molecule high-resolution measurements with optical tweezers. Biophysical Journal. 105 (6), 1293-1303 (2013).
  3. Capitanio, M., et al. Ultrafast force-clamp spectroscopy of single molecules reveals load dependence of myosin working stroke. Nature Methods. 9 (10), 1013-1019 (2012).
  4. Gardini, L., et al. Dissecting myosin-5B mechanosensitivity and calcium regulation at the single molecule level. Nature Communications. 9 (1), (2018).
  5. Woody, M. S., Winkelmann, D. A., Capitanio, M., Ostap, E. M., Goldman, Y. E. Single molecule mechanics resolves the earliest events in force generation by cardiac myosin. eLife. 8, 49266 (2019).
  6. Clemen, A. E. -. M., Vilfan, M., Jaud, J., Zhang, J., Bä, M., Rief, M. Force-dependent stepping kinetics of myosin-V. Biophysical Journal. 88, 4402-4410 (2005).
  7. Howard, J., Hancock, W. O. Three beads are better than one. Biophysical Journal. 118 (1), 1-3 (2020).
  8. Pyrpassopoulos, S., Shuman, H., Ostap, E. M. Modulation of kinesin's load-bearing capacity by force geometry and the microtubule track. Biophysical Journal. 118 (1), 243-253 (2020).
  9. Capitanio, M., Maggi, D., Vanzi, F., Pavone, F. S. FIONA in the trap: The advantages of combining optical tweezers and fluorescence. Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics. 9 (8), 157 (2007).
  10. Capitanio, M., Cicchi, R., Pavone, F. S. Position control and optical manipulation for nanotechnology applications. European Physical Journal B. 46 (1), 1-8 (2005).
  11. Capitanio, M. . Optical Tweezers. An introduction to Single Molecule Biophysics. , (2017).
  12. Capitanio, M., Cicchi, R., Saverio Pavone, F. Continuous and time-shared multiple optical tweezers for the study of single motor proteins. Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 45 (4), 450-457 (2007).
  13. Gardini, L., Tempestini, A., Pavone, F. S., Capitanio, M. High-speed optical tweezers for the study of single molecular motors. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1805, (2018).
  14. Capitanio, M., et al. Calibration of optical tweezers with differential interference contrast signals. Review of Scientific Instruments. 73 (4), 1687 (2002).
  15. Monico, C., Belcastro, G., Vanzi, F., Pavone, F. S., Capitanio, M. Combining single-molecule manipulation and imaging for the study of protein-DNA interactions. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (90), e51446 (2014).
  16. Greenberg, M. J., Lin, T., Goldman, Y. E., Shuman, H., Ostap, E. M. Myosin IC generates power over a range of loads via a new tension-sensing mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (37), 2433-2440 (2012).
  17. Gardini, L., Arbore, C., Capitanio, M., Pavone, F. S. A protocol for single molecule imaging and tracking of processive myosin motors. MethodsX. 6, 1854-1862 (2019).
  18. Ramaiya, A., Roy, B., Bugiel, M., Schäffer, E. Kinesin rotates unidirectionally and generates torque while walking on microtubules. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (41), 10894-10899 (2017).

Erratum

Erratum: Dissecting Mechanoenzymatic Properties of Processive Myosins with Ultra Force-Clamp Spectroscopy

An erratum was issued for: Dissecting Mechanoenzymatic Properties of Processive Myosins with Ultra Force-Clamp Spectroscopy. The title was updated.

The title was updated from:

Dissecting Mechanoenzymatic Properties of Processive Myosins with Ultra Force-Clamp Spectroscopy

to:

Dissecting Mechanoenzymatic Properties of Processive Myosins with Ultrafast Force-Clamp Spectroscopy

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved