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Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Medicine

Collecting And Measuring Wound Exudate Biochemical Mediators In Surgical Wounds

Published: October 20th, 2012

DOI:

10.3791/50133

1Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine

This article provides a detailed and visual description of a methodology for collecting and measuring biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators at the surgical wound site following cesarean delivery. This human bioassay has been used to determine correlations between wound and serum cytokine concentrations and drug-mediated changes in wound cytokines, chemokines and neuropetides.

We describe a methodology by which we are able to collect and measure biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators at the surgical wound site. Collecting site-specific biochemical markers is important to understand the relationship between levels in serum and surgical wound, determine any associations between mediator release, pain, analgesic use and other outcomes of interest, and evaluate the effect of systemic and peripheral drug administration on surgical wound biochemistry. This methodology has been applied to healthy women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. We have measured wound exudate and serum mediators at the same time intervals as patient's pain scores and analgesics consumption for up to 48 hours post-cesarean delivery. Using this methodology we have been able to detect various biochemical mediators including nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) substance P, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Studies applying this human surgical wound bioassay have found no correlations between wound and serum cytokine concentrations or their time-release profile (J Pain. 2008; 9(7):650-7).1 We also documented the utility of the technique to identify drug-mediated changes in wound cytokine content (Anesth Analg 2010; 111:1452-9).2

After a surgical incision, resident and migrating inflammatory cells release pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, prostanoids, neuropeptides and chemokines that are important for initiating and maintaining pain.3,4 The ability to collect site-specific biochemical markers is critical to determine the relationship between levels in serum and surgical wound, understand the complex relationship between mediator release and surgical pain, and to be able to evaluate the effect of both systemic and peripheral drug administration on surgical wound biochemistry. Studies have focused on systemic measurements of biochemical mediators and have not considered site-spec....

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1. Study Protocol

  • Obtain Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent.
  • Select an appropriate surgical population for study conduct. This methodology has only been applied to cesarean delivery wounds but most surgical wounds would be appropriate.
  • Consider inclusion and exclusion criteria for your study participation. Patients and procedures with high rates of surgical wound infection may not be appropriate.
  • Standardize anesthesia and postoperative management fo.......

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Using this methodology we have been able to detect all biochemical mediators outlined above with the exception of IL-5 in wound exudate and plasma.1,2 Some additional cytokines were not detected in plasma (IL-4, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, GM-CSF).1 The time course of measured cytokines and chemokines in reported studies were consistent, reaching a plateau within the first few hours that was sustained for the 24 hour observation period..1,2 However, NGF increased steadily over the 24-h.......

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This methodology outlined above has been found to be sensitive enough to detect biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators in wound exudate. Sampling at various time-points has also allowed us to observe changes of these mediators over time.1,2 We are not aware of any other human surgical wound assay that can serially measure the release profile of inflammatory and nociceptive mediators in surgical wound exudate. Results from our methodology of wound exudate collection from the surgical incision site i.......

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Dr. Carvalho's work was supported by a research grant from the Office of Research on Women's Health and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health (5K12 HD043452). Dr Angst received supplies (On-Q PainBuster Post-Op Pain Relief System) and funds (for the biochemical assays) from I-Flow (Lake Forest, California).

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  1. Carvalho, B., Clark, D. J., Angst, M. S. Local and Systemic Release of Cytokines, Nerve Growth Factor, Prostaglandin E2, and Substance P in Incisional Wounds and Serum Following Cesarean Delivery. J. Pain. 9, 650-657 (2008).
  2. Carvalho, B., Clark, D. J., Yeomans, D. C., Angst, M. S. Continuous subcutaneous instillation of bupivacaine compared to saline reduces interleukin 10 and increases substance P in surgical wounds after cesarean delivery. Anesth. Analg. 111, 1452-1459 (2010).
  3. Verri, W. A., Cunha, T. M., Parada, C. A., Poole, S., Cunha, F. Q., Ferreira, S. H. Hypernociceptive role of cytokines and chemokines: targets for analgesic drug development. Pharmacol. Ther. 112, 116-138 (2006).
  4. Watkins, L. R., Maier, S. F. Immune regulation of central nervous system functions: from sickness responses to pathological pain. J. Intern. Med. 257, 139-155 (2005).
  5. Beilin, B., Bessler, H., Mayburd, E., Smirnov, G., Dekel, A., Yardeni, I., Shavit, Y. Effects of preemptive analgesia on pain and cytokine production in the postoperative period. Anesthesiology. 98, 151-155 (2003).
  6. Wu, C. T., Jao, S. W., Borel, C. O., Yeh, C. C., Li, C. Y., Lu, C. H., Wong, C. S. The effect of epidural clonidine on perioperative cytokine response, postoperative pain, and bowel function in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Anesth. Analg. 99, 502-509 (2004).
  7. Buvanendran, A., Kroin, J. S., Berger, R. A., Hallab, N. J., Saha, C., Negrescu, C., Moric, M., Caicedo, M. S., Tuman, K. J. Upregulation of prostaglandin E2 and interleukins in the central nervous system and peripheral tissue during and after surgery in humans. Anesthesiology. 104, 403-410 (2006).
  8. Kristiansson, M., Soop, M., Sundqvist, K. G., Soop, A., Suontaka, A. M., Blomback, M. Local vs. systemic immune and haemostatic response to hip arthroplasty. Eur. J. Anaesthesiol. 15, 260-270 (1998).
  9. Liu, S. S., Richman, J. M., Thirlby, R. C., Wu, C. L. Efficacy of continuous wound catheters delivering local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 203, 914-932 (2006).
  10. Eriksson, A. S., Sinclair, R., Cassuto, J., Thomsen, P. Influence of lidocaine on leukocyte function in the surgical wound. Anesthesiology. 77, 74-78 (1992).
  11. Clark, J. D., Shi, X., Li, X., Qiao, Y., Liang, D., Angst, M. S., Yeomans, D. C. Morphine reduces local cytokine expression and neutrophil infiltration after incision. Mol. Pain. 3, 28 (2007).
  12. Webb, S. T., Ghosh, S. Intra-articular bupivacaine: potentially chondrotoxic. Br. J. Anaesth. 102, 439-441 (2009).
  13. Scott, N. B. Wound infiltration for surgery. Anaesthesia. 65, 67 (2010).

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