JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In





Representative Results





Immunology and Infection

Simultaneous Study of the Recruitment of Monocyte Subpopulations Under Flow In Vitro

Published: November 26th, 2018



1Hematology service, Centre Médical Universitaire (CMU), Medical faculty, University of Geneva, 2Department of Pathology and Immunology, Centre Médical Universitaire (CMU), Medical faculty, University of Geneva, 3Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Centre Médical Universitaire (CMU), Medical faculty, University of Geneva

Here, we present an integrated protocol that measures monocyte subpopulation trafficking under flow in vitro by use of specific surface markers and confocal fluorescence microscopy. This protocol can be used to explore sequential recruitment steps as well as to profile other leukocyte subtypes using other specific surface markers.

The recruitment of monocytes from the blood to targeted peripheral tissues is critical to the inflammatory process during tissue injury, tumor development and autoimmune diseases. This is facilitated through a process of capture from free flow onto the luminal surface of activated endothelial cells, followed by their adhesion and transendothelial migration (transmigration) into the underlying affected tissue. However, the mechanisms that support the preferential and context-dependent recruitment of monocyte subpopulations are still not fully understood. Therefore, we have developed a method that allows the recruitment of different monocyte subpopulations to be simultaneously visualized and measured under flow. This method, based on time-lapse confocal imaging, allows for the unambiguous distinction between adherent and transmigrated monocytes. Here, we describe how this method can be used to simultaneously study the recruitment cascade of pro-angiogenic and non-angiogenic monocytes in vitro. Furthermore, this method can be extended to study the different steps of recruitment of up to three monocyte populations.

Monocytes constitute a phagocytic component of innate immunity that is essential for fighting pathogens, cleaning up damaged tissues, angiogenesis, and the pathophysiology of many diseases including cancers1,2,3. Monocytes are bone marrow-derived cells composed of heterogeneous subpopulations that circulate in the blood but can be recruited to the site of inflammation in peripheral tissue through specific molecular mechanisms. The recruitment cascades of monocytes, as for leukocytes in general, implicates different steps including capture, rolling, crawling, arrest, transendo....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Human materials were used with the informed consent of volunteer donors and in accordance with the Swiss Ethics Committees on clinical research.

1. Isolation and Freezing of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC)

  1. Add 5 mL of coating solution to a T75 flask (0.1 mg/mL collagen G and 0.2% gelatin in phosphate buffered saline PBS at pH 7.4) for 30 min at 37 °C before initiating HUVEC isolation.
  2. Clean the cord with PBS, wipe it with sterile compresses, and place .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Determining the state of HUVEC activation induced by TNFα

The bio-activity of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα can be vary according to the batch and the repletion of freezing-thawing cycle. It is important to check the activation status of HUVEC with TNFα treatment. This could be performed by staining in parallel some samples of confluent HUVEC for the inflammatory induction of selectins, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Here, we report a method detailing a study of how monocyte subpopulations transmigrate through the inflamed endothelial monolayer. The discussed method used confocal microscopy instead of phase-contrast microscopy, which is also used to study monocyte recruitment under flow3,11,19. One major advantage of using confocal microscopy for time-lapse imaging is the ability to unambiguously discriminate between transmigration and stron.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

We thank Dr. Paul Bradfield for manuscript reading and feedbacks. A. S. received financial support from the Sir Jules Thorn Charitable Overseas Trust Reg.,


Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Tissue Culture Flasks 75 cm2 TPP 90076 Routine culture of isolated HUVEC
µ-Slide VI 0.4 IBIDI 80606
Centrifuge Tubes 15 mL TPP 191015
Centrifuge Tubes 50 mL TPP 191050
Collagen G Biochrom L 7213 For coating of cell culture flasks
Gelatin Sigma-Aldrich 1393 For coating of cell culture flasks
Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (without MgCl2 and CaCl2) Sigma-Aldrich D8537
Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (with MgCl2 and CaCl2) Sigma-Aldrich D8662
RPMI-1640 Medium Sigma-Aldrich R8758
3-Way Stopcocks BIO-RAD 7328103
penicillin 10000 u/ml streptomycine 10000 ug/ml fungizone 25 ug/ml AMIMED 4-02F00-H
Collagenase type 1 Worthington LS004216
Medium 199 1X avec Earle's salts, L-Glutamine, 25 mM Hepes GIBCO 22340020
Bovine Albumin Fraction V ThermoFisher 15260037
Endothelial Cell Growth Supplement, 150mg Millipore 02-102
Heparin Sodium Sigma-Aldrich H3149RT
Hydrocortisone Sigma-Aldrich H6909
L-Ascorbic acid Sigma-Aldrich A 4544
EDTA disodium salt dihydrate C10H14N2Na2O8 · 2H2O APPLICHEM A2937.0500
CD144 (VE-Cadherin), human recombinant clone: REA199, FITC Miltenyi Biotech 130-100-713 AB_2655150
CD31-PE antibody, human recombinant clone: REA730, PE Miltenyi Biotech 130-110-807 AB_2657280
Anti-Podoplanin-APC, human recombinantclone: REA446, APC Miltenyi Biotech 130-107-016 AB_2653263
BD Accuri C6 Plus BD Bioscience
µ-Slide I Luer IBIDI 80176
CMFDA (5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate) ThermoFisher C2925
Recombinant human TNFα Peprotech 300-01A
Recombinant human VEGFA Peprotech 100-20
NE-1000 Programmable Syringe Pump KF Technology NE-1000
Ficoll Paque Plus GE Healthcare 17-1440-02
Anti-human CD14-PE, human recombinant clone: REA599, PE Miltenyi Biotech 130-110-519 AB_2655051
Pan Monocyte Isolation Kit, human Miltenyi Biotech 130-096-537
Anti-human CD16-PE, human recombinant clone: REA423, PE Miltenyi Biotech 130-106-762 AB_2655403
LS columns Miltenyi Biotech 130-042-401
QuadroMACS Separator Miltenyi Biotech 130-090-976
Hoechst 33342, Trihydrochloride, Trihydrate ThermoFisher H1399
Silicone tubing IBIDI 10841
Elbow Luer Connector IBIDI 10802
Female Luer Lock Coupler IBIDI 10823
Luer Lock Connector Female IBIDI 10825
In-line Luer Injection Port IBIDI 10820
Ar1 confocal microscope Nikon
40X objective Nikon 40x 0.6 CFI ELWD S Plane Fluor WD:3.6-2.8mm correction 0-2mm
ImageJ Software NIH

  1. Auffray, C., Sieweke, M. H., Geissmann, F. Blood Monocytes: Development, Heterogeneity, and Relationship with Dendritic Cells. Annual Review of Immunology. 27 (1), 669-692 (2009).
  2. De Palma, M., Venneri, M. A., Roca, C., Naldini, L. Targeting exogenous genes to tumor angiogenesis by transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells. Nature Medicine. 9 (6), 789-795 (2003).
  3. Sidibe, A., et al. Angiogenic factor-driven inflammation promotes extravasation of human proangiogenic monocytes to tumours. Nature Communications. 9 (1), 355 (2018).
  4. Ley, K., Laudanna, C., Cybulsky, M. I., Nourshargh, S. Getting to the site of inflammation: the leukocyte adhesion cascade updated. Nature Review Immunology. 7 (9), 678-689 (2007).
  5. Nourshargh, S., Alon, R. Leukocyte Migration into Inflamed Tissues. Immunity. 41 (5), 694-707 (2014).
  6. Cros, J., et al. Human CD14dim monocytes patrol and sense nucleic acids and viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 receptors. Immunity. 33 (3), 375-386 (2010).
  7. Geissmann, F., Jung, S., Littman, D. R. Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Immunity. 19 (1), 71-82 (2003).
  8. Chamorro, S., et al. In vitro differentiation of porcine blood CD163− and CD163+ monocytes into functional dendritic cells. Immunobiology. 209 (1-2), 57-65 (2004).
  9. Passlick, B., Flieger, D., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H. Identification and characterization of a novel monocyte subpopulation in human peripheral blood. Blood. 74 (7), (1989).
  10. Venneri, M. A., et al. Identification of proangiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in human peripheral blood and cancer. Blood. 109 (12), 5276-5285 (2007).
  11. Bradfield, P. F., et al. JAM-C regulates unidirectional monocyte transendothelial migration in inflammation. Blood. 110 (7), 2545-2555 (2007).
  12. Schenkel, A. R., Mamdouh, Z., Muller, W. A. Locomotion of monocytes on endothelium is a critical step during extravasation. Nature Immunology. 5 (4), 393-400 (2004).
  13. Luu, N. T., Rainger, G. E., Nash, G. B. Kinetics of the different steps during neutrophil migration through cultured endothelial monolayers treated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Journal Vascular Research. 36 (6), 477-485 (1999).
  14. ibidi GmbH. . Shear Stress and Shear Rates for ibidi µ-Slides - Based on Numerical Calculations. , (2014).
  15. Yang, L., Froio, R. M., Sciuto, T. E., Dvorak, A. M., Alon, R., Luscinskas, F. W. ICAM-1 regulates neutrophil adhesion and transcellular migration of TNF-alpha-activated vascular endothelium under flow. Blood. 106 (2), 584-592 (2005).
  16. Yang, C. -. R., Hsieh, S. -. L., Ho, F. -. M., Lin, W. -. W. Decoy receptor 3 increases monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via NF-kappa B-dependent up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1, and IL-8 expression. Journal of Immunology. 174 (3), 1647-1656 (2005).
  17. Wong, D., Dorovini-Zis, K. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by human brain microvessel endothelial cells in primary culture. Microvascular Research. 49 (3), 325-339 (1995).
  18. Bradfield, P. F., Nourshargh, S., Aurrand-Lions, M., Imhof, B. A. JAM family and related proteins in leukocyte migration (Vestweber series). Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 27 (10), 2104-2112 (2007).
  19. Bradfield, P. F., et al. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques. PLoS One. 11 (7), e0159679 (2016).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo


Terms of Use





Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved