Published: October 17th, 2018
We present a procedure for growing several strains of Magnetospirillum in two different types of growth media. Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 is grown in both liquid and O2 concentration gradient semi-solid media while M. magneticum strain AMB-1 and M. magnetotacticum strain MS-1 are grown in liquid medium.
Magnetotactic bacteria are Gram-negative, motile, mainly aquatic prokaryotes ubiquitous in freshwater and marine habitats. They are characterized by their ability to biomineralize magnetosomes, which are magnetic nanometer-sized crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane, within their cytoplasm. For most known magnetotactic bacteria, magnetosomes are assembled in chains inside the cytoplasm, thereby conferring a permanent magnetic dipole moment to the cells and causing them to align passively with external magnetic fields. Because of these specific features, magnetotactic bacteria have a great potential for commercial and medical applications. However, most species are microaerophilic and have specific O2 concentration requirements, making them more difficult to grow routinely than many other bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here we present detailed protocols for growing three of the most widely studied strains of magnetotactic bacteria, all belonging to the genus Magnetospirillum. These methods allow for precise control of the O2 concentration made available to the bacteria, in order to ensure that they grow normally and synthesize magnetosomes. Growing magnetotactic bacteria for further studies using these procedures does not require the experimentalist to be an expert in microbiology. The general methods presented in this article may also be used to isolate and culture other magnetotactic bacteria, although it is likely that growth media chemical composition will need to be modified.
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a wide range of Gram-negative prokaryotes ubiquitous in freshwater and marine aquatic habitats1. These bacteria share the ability to produce magnetic crystals made of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4), which are in most cases assembled into chains inside the cells. This particular structural motif is due to the presence of several specific proteins acting both in the cytoplasm of the bacteria and on the lipid membrane that surrounds each crystal2. Each individual crystal and its surrounding membrane vesicle is called a magnetoso....
1. Installation of the N2 Station
NOTE: Choose the inner diameter of the tubing so that it can be connected to the gas tank with minimum leakage and so that the cylinder of a 1 mL plastic syringe tightly fits in this tubing. An illustration of the complete N2 gassing station is provided in Figure 1.
Successful preparation of the growth media can be assessed as follows. At the end of the process, clear solutions (i.e., free of any precipitate) should be obtained (this is true for both the liquid media and the O2 gradient semi-solid medium). A picture displaying the expected aspect of MSR-1 liquid medium before inoculation can be seen in Figure 2a. A successful O2 concentration gradient semi-solid medium is signaled by the fo.......
The specific O2 concentration requirements of MTB make them non-trivial to grow in the laboratory. A key step of the protocol for liquid medium is the initial removal of all O2 from the medium in order to control the final concentration by adding a definite volume of O2, just before inoculation. It has been shown that MSR-1 grows under almost fully aerobic conditions, however, the magnetism of the cells is drastically reduced. The results from the same study showed that strains AMB-1 and .......
We thank Richard B. Frankel for his help with MTB cultures, Adam P. Hitchcock and Xiaohui Zhu for their support while setting up the MTB cultures at McMaster University, and Marcia Reid for training and access to the electron microscopy facility (McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences). This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the US National Science Foundation.....
|American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
|Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ)
|Trace mineral supplement
|BioShop Canada Inc
|Potassium L-lactate solution (60%)
|Sodium succinate hexahydrate
|Sodium L-tartrate dibasic dihydrate
|Sodium acetate trihydrate
|Bio Basic Canada Inc
|1.0 mL syringes
|25G x 1 needles
|125 mL serum bottles
|20 mm aluminum seals
|20mm E-Z Crimper
|Bellco Glass, Inc.
|Septum stopper, 13mm, Hungate
|Bellco Glass, Inc.
|Glass culture Tubes
|Hydrochloric acid 36.5-38%, BioReagent
|11.6 - 12 N
Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved