JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Bioengineering

Electric and Magnetic Field Devices for Stimulation of Biological Tissues

Published: May 15th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62111

1Biomimetics Laboratory, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2Numerical Methods and Modeling Research Group (GNUM), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 3Design, Analysis and Development of Engineering Systems Research group (GIDAD), Fundación Universitaria Los Libertadores, 4School of Health and Sports Sciences, Master Program in Epidemiology, Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina

This protocol describes the step-by-step process to build both electrical and magnetic stimulators used to stimulate biological tissues. The protocol includes a guideline to simulate computationally electric and magnetic fields and manufacture of stimulator devices.

Electric fields (EFs) and magnetic fields (MFs) have been widely used by tissue engineering to improve cell dynamics such as proliferation, migration, differentiation, morphology, and molecular synthesis. However, variables such stimuli strength and stimulation times need to be considered when stimulating either cells, tissues or scaffolds. Given that EFs and MFs vary according to cellular response, it remains unclear how to build devices that generate adequate biophysical stimuli to stimulate biological samples. In fact, there is a lack of evidence regarding the calculation and distribution when biophysical stimuli are applied. This protocol is focused on the design and manufacture of devices to generate EFs and MFs and implementation of a computational methodology to predict biophysical stimuli distribution inside and outside of biological samples. The EF device was composed of two parallel stainless-steel electrodes located at the top and bottom of biological cultures. Electrodes were connected to an oscillator to generate voltages (50, 100, 150 and 200 Vp-p) at 60 kHz. The MF device was composed of a coil, which was energized with a transformer to generate a current (1 A) and voltage (6 V) at 60 Hz. A polymethyl methacrylate support was built to locate the biological cultures in the middle of the coil. The computational simulation elucidated the homogeneous distribution of EFs and MFs inside and outside of biological tissues. This computational model is a promising tool that can modify parameters such as voltages, frequencies, tissue morphologies, well plate types, electrodes and coil size to estimate the EFs and MFs to achieve a cellular response.

EFs and MFs have been shown to modify cell dynamics, stimulating proliferation and increasing synthesis of the main molecules associated with the extracellular matrix of tissues1. These biophysical stimuli can be applied in different ways by using specific settings and devices. Regarding the devices to generate EFs, direct coupling stimulators use electrodes that are in contact with biological samples in vitro or implanted directly into tissues of patients and animals in vivo2; however, there are still limitations and deficiencies that include insufficient biocompatibility by the electrodes in contact, changes in the pH ....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

1. Simulation of EFs and MFs

NOTE: Simulation of EFs and MFs was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics.

  1. Select an axisymmetric 2D configuration to represent both domains electric and magnetic.
  2. In the physic configuration, select either the Electric Current interface to compute EFs in parallel electrodes or the Magnetic Field interface to compute MFs around coils.
  3. In the study configuration, select Frequency Domain to.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Computational simulation
Distributions of EFs and MFs are shown in Figure 3. On the one hand, it was possible to observe the homogeneous distribution of EFs in the capacitive system (Figure 3A). The EF was plotted to observe in detail the magnitude of the field inside the biological sample (Figure 3B). This simulation was useful to parametrize the size of the electrodes and manufacture them to avoid the edge e.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Treatments used to heal different pathologies that affect human tissues are pharmacological therapies32 or surgical interventions33, which seek to relieve pain locally or replace affected tissues with explants or transplants. Recently, autologous cell therapy has been proposed as an alternative therapy to treat injured tissues, where cells are isolated from patient and expanded, through in vitro techniques, to be implanted at the site of the injury34.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The authors thank the financial support provided by "Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento para la Ciencia, la Tecnología, y la Innovación -Fondo Francisco José de Caldas- Minciencias" and Universidad Nacional de Colombia through the grant No. 80740-290-2020 and the support received by Valteam Tech - Research and Innovation for providing the equipment and technical support in the edition of the video.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Electrical stimulator
Operational amplifier Motorola LF-353N ----
Quantity: 1
Resistors ---- ---- 22 kΩ
Quantity: 1
Resistors ---- ---- 10 kΩ
Quantity: 3
Resistors ---- ---- 2.6 kΩ
Quantity: 2
Resistors ---- ---- 2.2 kΩ
Quantity: 1
Resistors ---- ---- 1 kΩ
Quantity: 1
Resistors ---- ---- 220 Ω
Quantity: 2
Resistors ---- ---- 22 Ω
Quantity: 5
Resistors ---- ---- 10 Ω
Quantity: 1
Resistors ---- ---- 6.8 Ω
Quantity: 1
Resistors ---- ---- 3.3 Ω
Quantity: 2
Polyester capacitors ---- ---- 1 nF
Quantity: 2
Polyester capacitors ---- ---- 100 nF
Quantity: 1
VHF Band Amplifier Transistor JFET Toshiba 2SK161 ----
Quantity: 1
Power transistor BJT NPN Mospec TIP 31C ----
Quantity: 1
Zener diode Microsemi 1N4148 ----
Quantity: 1
Switch Toogle Switch SPDT - T13 ----
Quantity: 3
Toroidal ferrite core Caracol ---- T*22*14*8
Quantity: 1
Cooper wire Greenshine ---- AWG – 24
Quantity: 1
Relimate header with female housing ADAFRUIT ---- 8 pin connectors
Quantity: 1
Relimate header with female housing ADAFRUIT ---- 2 pin connectors
Quantity: 1
Female plug terminal connector JIALUN ---- 4mm Lantern Plugs (Plug + Socket) 15 A
Quantity: 1
Aluminum Heat Sink AWIND ---- For TIP 31C transistor
Quantity: 1
Led CHANZON ---- 5 mm red
Quantity: 1
Integrated circuit socket connector Te Electronics Co., Ltd. ---- Double row 8-pin DIP
Quantity: 1
3 pin connectors set STAR ---- JST PH 2.0
Quantity: 3
2 pin screw connectors STAR ---- For PCB
Quantity: 1
3 pin screw connectors STAR ---- For PCB
Quantity: 1
Banana connector test lead JIALUN ---- P1041 - 4 mm - 15 A
Quantity: 7
Bullet connectors to banana plug charge lead JIALUN ---- 4 mm male-male/female-female adapters - 15 A
Quantity: 1
Case ---- ---- ABS
Quantity: 1
Electrodes ---- ---- Stainless – steel
Quantity: 2
Electrode support ---- ---- Teflon
Quantity: 2
Printed circuit board Quantity: 1
Magnetic stimulator
Cooper wire Greenshine ---- AWG – 18
Quantity: 1
AC power plugs ---- ---- 120 V AC – 60 Hz
Quantity: 1
Banana female connector test lead JIALUN ---- 1Set Dual Injection - 4 mm – 15 A
Quantity: 2
Banana male connector test lead JIALUN ---- 1Set Dual Injection - 4 mm 15 A
Quantity: 1
Cell culture well plate support ---- ---- PMMA
Quantity: 1
Fuse Bussmann 2A ----
Quantity: 1
Transformer ---- ---- 1A – 6 V AC
Quantity: 1
Tube ---- ---- PVC
Quantity: 1
Variable rheostat MCP BXS150 10 Ω
Quantity: 1
General equipment
Digital dual source  PeakTech DG 1022Z 2 x 0 - 30 V / 0 - 5 A CC / 5 V / 3 A fijo
Quantity: 1
Digital Oscilloscope Rigol DS1104Z Plus 100 MHz, bandwidth, 4 channels
Quantity: 1
Digital multimeter Fluke F179 Voltage CC – CA (1000 V). Current CC – CA 10 A. Frequency 100 kHz
Quantity: 1

  1. Balint, R., Cassidy, N. J., Cartmell, S. H. Electrical Stimulation: A Novel Tool for Tissue Engineering. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews. 19 (1), 48-57 (2013).
  2. Ercan, B., Webster, T. J. The effect of biphasic electrical stimulation on osteoblast function at anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces. Biomaterials. 31 (13), 3684-3693 (2010).
  3. Brighton, C., Wang, W., Clark, C. The effect of electrical fields on gene and protein expression in human osteoarthritic cartilage explants. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American. 90 (4), 833-848 (2008).
  4. Baerov, R. M., Morega, A. M., Morega, M. Analysis of magnetotherapy effects for post-traumatic recovery of limb fractures. Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques- Série électrotechnique et énergétique. 65 (1-2), 145-150 (2020).
  5. Escobar, J. F., et al. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Stimulation with Magnetic Fields on Chondrocytes. Bioelectromagnetics. 41 (1), 41-51 (2019).
  6. Brighton, C., Wang, W., Clark, C. Up-regulation of matrix in bovine articular cartilage explants by electric fields. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 342 (2), 556-561 (2006).
  7. Xu, J., Wang, W., Clark, C., Brighton, C. Signal transduction in electrically stimulated articular chondrocytes involves translocation of extracellular calcium through voltage-gated channels. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 17 (3), 397-405 (2009).
  8. Xia, Y., et al. Magnetic field and nano-scaffolds with stem cells to enhance bone regeneration. Biomaterials. 183, 151-170 (2018).
  9. Richter, A., Bartoš, M., Ferková, &. #. 3. 8. 1. ;. Physical Analysis of Pulse Low-Dynamic Magnetic Field Applied in Physiotherapy BT. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2018. , 239-245 (2019).
  10. Miyakoshi, J. Effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 87, 213-223 (2005).
  11. Zhang, K., Guo, J., Ge, Z., Zhang, J. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEFs) Regulate Phenotypes of Chondrocytes through Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway. Scientific Reports. 4 (5836), 1-8 (2014).
  12. Brighton, C. T., Unger, A. S., Stambough, J. L. In vitro growth of bovine articular cartilage chondrocytes in various capacitively coupled electrical fields. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 2 (1), 15-22 (1984).
  13. Armstrong, P. F., Brighton, C., Star, A. M. Capacitively coupled electrical stimulation of bovine growth plate chondrocytes grown in pellet form. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 6 (2), 265-271 (1988).
  14. Brighton, C., Townsend, P. Increased cAMP production after short-term capacitively coupled stimulation in bovine growth plate chondrocytes. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 6 (4), 552-558 (1988).
  15. Brighton, C. T., Jensen, L., Pollack, S. R., Tolin, B. S., Clark, C. Proliferative and synthetic response of bovine growth plate chondrocytes to various capacitively coupled electrical fields. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 7 (5), 759-765 (1989).
  16. Brighton, C. T., Okereke, E., Pollack, S. R., Clark, C. In vitro bone-cell response to a capacitively coupled electrical field. The role of field strength, pulse pattern, and duty cycle. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 285, 255-262 (1992).
  17. Wang, W., Wang, Z., Zhang, G., Clark, C., Brighton, C. T. Up-regulation of chondrocyte matrix genes and products by electric fields. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 427, 163-173 (2004).
  18. Hartig, M., Joos, U., Wiesmann, H. P. Capacitively coupled electric fields accelerate proliferation of osteoblast-like primary cells and increase bone extracellular matrix formation in vitro. European Biophysics Journal. 29 (7), 499-506 (2000).
  19. Kim, I. S., et al. Biphasic electric current stimulates proliferation and induces VEGF production in osteoblasts. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1763 (9), 907-916 (2006).
  20. Kim, I., et al. Novel Effect of Biphasic Electric Current on In Vitro Osteogenesis and Cytokine Production in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Tissue Engineering Part A. 15, 2411-2422 (2009).
  21. Kim, I., et al. Novel action of biphasic electric current in vitro osteogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells coupled with VEGF production. Bone. 43, 43-44 (2008).
  22. Nakasuji, S., Morita, Y., Tanaka, K., Tanaka, T., Nakamachi, E. Effect of pulse electric field stimulation on chondrocytes. Asian Pacific Conference for Materials and Mechanics. 1, 13-16 (2009).
  23. Au, H. T. H., Cheng, I., Chowdhury, M. F., Radisic, M. Interactive effects of surface topography and pulsatile electrical field stimulation on orientation and elongation of fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. Biomaterials. 28 (29), 4277-4293 (2007).
  24. Vanessa, N., et al. In vitro exposure of human chondrocytes to pulsed electromagnetic fields. European Journal of Histochemistry. 51 (3), 203-211 (2007).
  25. Pezzetti, F., et al. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on human chondrocytes: An in vitro study. Calcified Tissue International. 65 (5), 396-401 (1999).
  26. De Mattei, M., et al. Effects of electromagnetic fields on proteoglycan metabolism of bovine articular cartilage explants. Connective Tissue Research. 44 (3-4), 154-159 (2003).
  27. Sollazzo, V., Massari, L., Caruso, A., Mattei, M., Pezzetti, F. Effects of Low-Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Osteoblast-Like Cells In Wtro. Electromagnetobiology. 15, 75-83 (2009).
  28. Martino, C. F., Perea, H., Hopfner, U., Ferguson, V. L., Wintermantel, E. Effects of weak static magnetic fields on endothelial cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 31 (4), 296-301 (2010).
  29. Wada, K., et al. Design and implementation of multi-frequency magnetic field generator producing sinusoidal current waveform for biological researches. 2016 18th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe). 2016, 1-8 (2016).
  30. Cho, H., Kim, S., Kim, K. K., Kim, K., Kim, K. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Stimulate Cellular Proliferation in Different Types of Cells. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 52 (7), 1-4 (2016).
  31. Yan, J., Dong, L., Zhang, B., Qi, N. Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field on growth and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 29 (4), 165-176 (2010).
  32. Enoch, S., Grey, J. E., Harding, K. G. ABC of wound healing. Non-surgical and drug treatments. BMJ. 332 (7546), 900-903 (2006).
  33. Bhosale, A. M., Richardson, J. B. Articular cartilage: Structure, injuries and review of management. British Medical Bulletin. 87 (1), 77-95 (2008).
  34. Al Hamed, R., Bazarbachi, A. H., Malard, F., Harousseau, J. -. L., Mohty, M. Current status of autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Blood Cancer Journal. 9 (4), 44 (2019).
  35. Massari, L., et al. Biophysical stimulation of bone and cartilage: state of the art and future perspectives. International Orthopaedics. 43 (3), 539-551 (2019).
  36. Naskar, S., Kumaran, V., Basu, B. Reprogramming the Stem Cell Behavior by Shear Stress and Electric Field Stimulation: Lab-on-a-Chip Based Biomicrofluidics in Regenerative Medicine. Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine. 5 (2), 99-127 (2019).
  37. Hunckler, J., de Mel, A. A current affair: electrotherapy in wound healing. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare. 10, 179-194 (2017).
  38. Henry, S. L., Concannon, M. J., Yee, G. J. The effect of magnetic fields on wound healing: experimental study and review of the literature. Eplasty. 8, 393-399 (2008).
  39. Hiemer, B., et al. Effect of electric stimulation on human chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells under normoxia and hypoxia. Molecular Medicine Reports. 18 (2), 2133-2141 (2018).
  40. Chao, P. H., et al. Chondrocyte translocation response to direct current electric fields. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 122 (3), 261-267 (2000).
  41. Zhao, M., Bai, H., Wang, E., Forrester, J., McCaig, C. Electrical stimulation directly induces pre-angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells by signaling through VEGF receptors. Journal of Cell Science. 117 (3), 397-405 (2004).
  42. Li, X., Kolega, J. Effects of direct current electric fields on cell migration and actin filament distribution in bovine vascular endothelial cells. Journal of Vascular Research. 39 (5), 391-404 (2002).
  43. Singh, B., Dixit, A. Multistage amplifier and tuned amplifier. Analog Electronics. , 87-131 (2007).
  44. Esfandiari, E., et al. The effect of high frequency electric field on enhancement of chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells. Iranian Journal Basic Medical Sciences. 4 (3), 571-576 (2014).
  45. Mardani, M., et al. Induction of chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by low frequency electric field. Advanced Biomedical Research. 5 (97), 1-7 (2016).
  46. Karaman, O., Gümüşay, M., Demirci, E. A., Kaya, A. Comparative assessment of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and pulsed radio frequency energy (PRFE) on an in vitro wound healing model. International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics. 57, 427-437 (2018).
  47. Glinka, M., et al. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. 331, 208-215 (2013).
  48. Vacek, T. P., et al. Electrical stimulation of cardiomyocytes activates mitochondrial matrix metalloproteinase causing electrical remodeling. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 404 (3), 762-766 (2011).
  49. Okutsu, S., et al. Electric Pulse Stimulation Induces NMDA Glutamate Receptor mRNA in NIH3T3 Mouse Fibroblasts. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 215 (2), 181-187 (2008).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved