Published: August 26th, 2021
This work reports a method for controlling the cardiac rhythm of intact murine hearts of transgenic channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) mice using local photostimulation with a micro-LED array and simultaneous optical mapping of epicardial membrane potential.
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Electrical defibrillation using high-energy electric shocks is currently the only treatment for life-threatening ventricular fibrillation. However, defibrillation may have side-effects, including intolerable pain, tissue damage, and worsening of prognosis, indicating a significant medical need for the development of more gentle cardiac rhythm management strategies. Besides energy-reducing electrical approaches, cardiac optogenetics was introduced as a powerful tool to influence cardiac activity using light-sensitive membrane ion channels and light pulses. In the present study, a robust and valid method for successful photostimulation of Langendorff perfused intact murine hearts will be described based on multi-site pacing applying a 3 x 3 array of micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LED). Simultaneous optical mapping of epicardial membrane voltage waves allows the investigation of the effects of region-specific stimulation and evaluates the newly induced cardiac activity directly on-site. The obtained results show that the efficacy of defibrillation is strongly dependent on the parameters chosen for photostimulation during a cardiac arrhythmia. It will be demonstrated that the illuminated area of the heart plays a crucial role for termination success as well as how the targeted control of cardiac activity during illumination for modifying arrhythmia patterns can be achieved. In summary, this technique provides a possibility to optimize the on-site mechanism manipulation on the way to real-time feedback control of cardiac rhythm and, regarding the region specificity, new approaches in reducing the potential harm to the cardiac system compared to the usage of non-specific electrical shock applications.
Early investigations of the spatial-temporal dynamics during arrhythmia revealed that the complex electrical patterns during cardiac fibrillation are driven by vortex-like rotating excitation waves1. This finding gave new insights into the underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias, which then led to the development of novel electrical termination therapies based on multi-site excitation of the myocardium2,3,4. However, treatments using electric field stimulation are non-local and may innervate all surrounding excitable cells, including muscle tissue, causin....
All experiments strictly followed the animal welfare regulation, in agreement with German legislation, local stipulations, and in accordance with recommendations of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA). The application for approval of animal experiments has been approved by the responsible animal welfare authority, and all experiments were reported to our animal welfare representatives.
1. Experiment preparation and materials
The protocol allows the induction of ventricular arrhythmias in intact murine hearts using photostimulation pulses generated by LED 1 and LED 2 (Figure 1) with a frequency find between 25 Hz and 35 Hz and a pulse duration Wind between 2 ms and 10 ms. Please notice that the aim of such rapid light pulses is not to capture the cardiac rhythm but rather to unbalance the cardiac activity so that erratic electrical waves can be generated, which then facilitate an arrhythmia........
A successful treatment of cardiac tachyarrhythmias is key to cardiac therapy. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying arrhythmia initiation, perpetuation and termination are not fully understood. Therefore, cardiac research aims to optimize electrical shock therapy towards a more gentle termination of arrhythmias, thereby increasing the quality of life of patients28,29,30,31. Low energy .......
The authors would like to thank Marion Kunze and Tina Althaus for their excellent technical support during experiments. The research leading to the results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement number HEALTH-F2-2009-241526. Support was also provided by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research, DZHK e.V. (Project MD28), partner site Goettingen, the German Research Foundation CRC 1002 (project C03), and the Max Planck Society. This work was partly supported by BrainLinks-BrainTools, Cluster of Excellence funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG, grant number EXC 1086).....
|10 mM stock solution
|50 l bottle
|Dye for Optical Mapping
|Heparin-Natrium Leo 25.000 I.E./5 ml, available only on prescription
|HCl, 1 M stock solution
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|10 mM stock solution
|NaOH, 1 M stock solution
|data acquisition and analysis system
|Custom-built ECG, alternative ECG100C
|Custom-built water bath heater using heating cable
|RMS Heating System
|Heating cable 120W
|Hexagonal water bath
|LED Driver Power supply
|15 V, 2.4 A Power Supply Unit with 3.5 mm Jack Connector for One K- or T-Cube.
|LEDD1B LED Driver
|T-Cube LED Driver, 1200 mA Max Drive Current
|MAP, ECG Electrode
|Hugo Sachs Elektronik
|Mini-ECG Electrode for isoalted hearts
|micro-LED Driver e.g. AFG
|Arbitrary function generator (AFG)
|micro-LED Array Components
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|LED 1 and LED 2
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|625 nm, 700 mW (Min) Mounted LED, 1000 mA
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