Immunology and Infection
Published: August 1st, 2013
The most commonly used method for generating large numbers of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) for use in tumor immunotherapy is described. The method uses IL-4 and GM-CSF to differentiate DCs from monocytes. The immature DCs are stimulated to mature and then loaded with antigens before they are injected back into the patient.
While clinical studies have established that antigen-loaded DC vaccines are safe and promising therapy for tumors 1, their clinical efficacy remains to be established. The method described below, prepared in accordance with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) guidelines, is an optimization of the most common ex vivo preparation method for generating large numbers of DCs for clinical studies 2.
Our method utilizes the synthetic TLR 3 agonist Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid-poly-L-lysine Carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC) to stimulate the DCs. Our previous study established that Poly-ICLC is the most potent individual maturation stimulus for human DCs as assessed by an upregulation of CD83 and CD86, induction of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interleukmin 1 (IL-1), and type I interferons (IFN), and minimal interleukin 10 (IL-10) production.
DCs are differentiated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained by leukapheresis. PBMCs are isolated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation and frozen in aliquots. On Day 1, PBMCs are thawed and plated onto tissue culture flasks to select for monocytes which adhere to the plastic surface after 1-2 hr incubation at 37 °C in the tissue culture incubator. After incubation, the lymphocytes are washed off and the adherent monocytes are cultured for 5 days in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to differentiate to immature DCs. On Day 6, immature DCs are pulsed with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) protein which serves as a control for the quality of the vaccine and may boost the immunogenicity of the vaccine 3. The DCs are stimulated to mature, loaded with peptide antigens, and incubated overnight. On Day 7, the cells are washed, and frozen in 1 ml aliquots containing 4 - 20 x 106 cells using a controlled-rate freezer. Lot release testing for the batches of DCs is performed and must meet minimum specifications before they are injected into patients.
1. Isolation and Cryopreservation of PBMCs 4
Between 10 - 20% of starting PBMCs differentiate into DCs at the end of the culture period. Mature DCs are CD11c+, CD14-, CD83+, CD40+, and CCR7+ (Figure 1). They express high levels of MHC class I and II molecules and the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Poly-ICLC also induced lower levels of PDL-1 as compared to other TLR agonists 14. Additionally, these Poly-IC-matured DCs secrete large amounts of IL-12 (Figure 2 and 15,16) and induce the proliferation of a.......
Phase I and II clinical trials of monocyte-derived DCs have shown that they induce immune responses in patients however clinical success has been limited 1. This may be partly due to the lack of consensus on how to generate the optimal DCs for tumor immunotherapeutic use. Although there are numerous ways to generate clinical-grade DCs, these methods vary in terms of the use of cytokines used to differentiate the monocytes, stimuli used to induce maturation, and methods of antigen loading. The formula for gener.......
|RPMI-1640 medium with L-glutamine
|1M HEPES buffered saline
|Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)
|Human albumin, 25% solution USP
|Human AB serum
|Sterile saline USP
|Leukine GM-CSF, 0.5 mg/ml
|MACS GMP IL-4
|Hiltonol, Poly-ICLC, 2 mg/ml
|225 sq cm EasyFlasks
|Falcon 6-well tissue culture plates
|1.8 ml CryoTube vials
|Controlled Rate Freezer
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