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Materials

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Biochemistry

Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of Ryanodine Receptor from Plutella xylostella

Published: November 30th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58568

1Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, 2State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian/Taiwan Crops and Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 3Joint International Research Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, 4Fujian-Taiwan Joint Centre for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
* These authors contributed equally

In this article, we describe the protocols of protein expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N-terminal domain of ryanodine receptor from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

Development of potent and efficient insecticides targeting insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs) has been of great interest in the area of agricultural pest control. To date, several diamide insecticides targeting pest RyRs have been commercialized, which generate annual revenue of 2 billion U.S. dollars. But comprehension of the mode of action of RyR-targeting insecticides is limited by the lack of structural information regarding insect RyR. This in turn restricts understanding of the development of insecticide resistance in pests. The diamondback moth (DBM) is a devastating pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide, which has also been reported to show resistance to diamide insecticides. Therefore, it is of great practical importance to develop novel insecticides targeting the DBM RyR, especially targeting a region different from the traditional diamide binding site. Here, we present a protocol to structurally characterize the N-terminal domain of RyR from DBM. The x-ray crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement at a resolution of 2.84 Å, which shows a beta-trefoil folding motif and a flanking alpha helix. This protocol can be adapted for the expression, purification and structural characterization of other domains or proteins in general.

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are specific ion channels, which mediate the permeation of Ca2+ ions across the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes in muscle cells. Therefore, they play an important role in the excitation contraction coupling process. In its functional form, RyR assembles as a homo-tetramer with a molecular mass of >2 MDa, with each subunit comprising of ~5000 amino acid residues. In mammals, there are three isoforms: RyR1- skeletal muscle type, RyR2- cardiac muscle type and RyR3- ubiquitously expressed in different tissues1.

In insects there is only one type of RyR, which is expressed in....

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1. Gene Cloning, Protein Expression, and Purification

  1. PCR amplify DNA corresponding to protein of interest (residues 1-205 of DBM RyR, Genbank acc. no. AFW97408) and clone into pET-28a-HMT vector by Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC)25. This vector contains a histidine tag, MBP tag and a TEV protease cleavage site at the N-terminus15.
    1. Design LIC primers for amplification of target gene with LIC-compatible 5’ extensions:
      .......

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Purification

The N-terminal domain of DBM RyR was expressed as a fusion protein with a hexahistidine tag, a MBP tag and a TEV protease cleavage site. We followed a five-step purification strategy to obtain a highly pure protein, suitable for crystallization purpose. At first, the fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of cell lysate by Ni-NTA column (HisTrap HP). Next, the fusion protein was subjected to TEV pro.......

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In this paper, we describe the procedure to recombinantly express, purify, crystallize and determine the structure of DBM RyR NTD. For crystallization, a crucial requirement is to obtain proteins with high solubility, purity and homogeneity. In our protocol, we chose to use pET-28a-HMT vector as it contains a hexahistidine tag and MBP tag, both of which could be utilized for purification to obtain a higher fold purity. Additionally, the MBP tag aids in the solubility of the target protein. We purified the protein by five.......

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Funding for this research was provided by: National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0201400, 2017YFD0201403), National Nature Science Foundation of China (31320103922, 31230061), and Project of National Basic Research (973) Program of China (2015CB856500, 2015CB856504). We are grateful to the staff on the beamline BL17U1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).

....

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
pET-28a-HMT vector This modified pET vector contains a hexahistidine tag, an MBP fusion protein and a TEV protease cleavage site at the N-terminus (Lobo and Van Petegem, 2009)
E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain Novagen 69450-3CN
HisTrapHP column (5 mL) GE Healthcare 45-000-325
Amylose resin column New England Biolabs E8021S
Q Sepharose high-performance column  GE Healthcare 17-1154-01
Amicon concentrators (10 kDa MWCO) Millipore UFC901008
Superdex 200 26/600 gel-filtration column  GE Healthcare 28-9893-36
Automated liquid handling robotic system  Art Robbins Instruments Gryphon
96 Well CrystalQuick Greiner bio-one 82050-494
Uni-Puck Molecular Dimensions MD7-601
Mounted CryoLoop - 20 micron Hampton Research HR4-955
CryoWand Molecular Dimensions MD7-411
Puck dewar loading tool Molecular Dimensions MD7-607
Nano drop Thermo Scientific NanoDrop One
Crystal incubator Molecular Dimensions MD5-605
X-Ray diffractor Rigaku FRX
PCR machine Eppendorf Nexus GX2
Plasmid mini-prep kit Qiagen 27104
Gel extraction kit Qiagen 28704
SspI restriction endonuclease NEB R0132S
T4 DNA polymerase Novagen 2868713
Kanamycin Scientific Chemical 25389940
IPTG Genview 367931
HEPES Genview 7365459
β-mercaptoethanol Genview 60242
Centrifuge Thermo Scientific Sorvall LYNX 6000 
Sonnicator Scientz II-D
Protein purification system GE Healthcare Akta Pure
Light microscope Nikon SMZ745
IzIt crystal dye Hampton Research HR4-710
Electrophoresis unit Bio-Rad 1658005EDU
Shaker Incubator Zhicheng ZWYR-D2401
Index crystal screen Hampton Research HR2-144
Structure crystal screen Molecular Dimensions MD1-01
ProPlex crystal screen Molecular Dimensions MD1-38
PACT premier crystal screen Molecular Dimensions MD1-29
JCSG-plus crystal screen Molecular Dimensions MD1-37

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