Published: October 25th, 2018
Here, we present a protocol to prepare DNA samples from food and environmental microbiomes for concerted detection and subtyping of Salmonella through quasimetagenomic sequencing. The combined use of culture enrichment, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and multiple displacement amplification (MDA) allows effective concentration of Salmonella genomic DNA from food and environmental samples.
Quasi-metagenomics sequencing refers to the sequencing-based analysis of modified microbiomes of food and environmental samples. In this protocol, microbiome modification is designed to concentrate genomic DNA of a target foodborne pathogen contaminant to facilitate the detection and subtyping of the pathogen in a single workflow. Here, we explain and demonstrate the sample preparation steps for the quasi-metagenomics analysis of Salmonella enterica from representative food and environmental samples including alfalfa sprouts, ground black pepper, ground beef, chicken breast and environmental swabs. Samples are first subjected to the culture enrichment of Salmonella for a shortened and adjustable duration (4–24 h). Salmonella cells are then selectively captured from the enrichment culture by immunomagnetic separation (IMS). Finally, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is performed to amplify DNA from IMS-captured cells. The DNA output of this protocol can be sequenced by high throughput sequencing platforms. An optional quantitative PCR analysis can be performed to replace sequencing for Salmonella detection or assess the concentration of Salmonella DNA before sequencing.
Metagenomics sequencing theoretically allows concerted detection and subtyping of foodborne pathogens. However, food samples present challenges to the pathogen analysis by direct sequencing of the food microbiome. First, foodborne pathogens are often present at low levels in food samples. Most of the commercially available rapid detection methods still require 8–48 h culturing to enrich pathogen cells to a detectable level1. Second, many foods contain abundant microflora cells and/or food DNA, making foodborne pathogen DNA a small fraction of food metagenome and an elusive target for detection and subtyping by direct metagenomic sequencin....
1. Sample Preparation
NOTE: Food samples are prepared for pre-enrichment according to Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) of U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS)11 and Bacteriological analytical manual (BAM) of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)12.
Prior to quasimetagenomic sequencing, the overall quantity and purity of IMS-MDA products can be evaluated by fluorospectrometer (Table 1).
|Enrichment time (h)
Because of the often-low abundance and in-homogenous presence of Salmonella in food and environmental samples, culture enrichment before IMS-MDA is still necessary for Salmonella detection and subtyping; it is therefore a critical step of the protocol. To identify optimal conditions to increase the abundance of Salmonella relative to sample background flora, different enrichment media may be evaluated for specific samples. According to MLG and BAM, both selective medium such as RV broth and non.......
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