JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Developmental Biology

Creating Avian Forebrain Chimeras to Assess Facial Development

Published: February 18th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62183

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, University of California

This article describes a tissue transplantation technique that was designed to test the signaling and patterning properties of basal forebrain during craniofacial development.

The avian embryo has been used as a model system for more than a century and has led to fundamental understanding of vertebrate development. One of the strengths of this model system is that the effect of, and interaction among, tissues can be directly assessed in chimeric embryos. We have previously shown that signals from the forebrain contribute to facial morphogenesis by regulating the shape of the expression domain of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the Frontonasal Ectodermal Zone (FEZ). In this article, the method of generating the forebrain chimeras and provide illustrations of the outcomes of these experiments is described.

Much contemporary research in developmental biology focuses on the role of genes in shaping embryos. There are good tools to examine developmental mechanisms from a genetic perspective. However, embryos are assembled and undergo morphogenesis in response to tissue interactions. The avian system is a classic tool used to assess the variety of tissue interactions that regulate development for the following reasons: the embryology is well-understood, the embryos are easily accessible, tools for analysis of avian systems are well-developed, and the embryos are inexpensive.

The avian transplantation system has been widely employed for lineage tr....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos), white Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (Cortunix coturnix japonica) are incubated at 37 °C in a humidified chamber until stage-matched at HH7/817.

1. Preparing the donor tissue

NOTE: Preparation of reagents and tools and how to open eggs for experimental manipulation has been described6.

  1. Prepare DMEM media with neutral .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Assessment of Chimerism and Transplant Contamination
In order to assess the chimeras, the extent of chimerism and contamination of the graft with other cell types should be addressed. Creating chimeras by transplanting quail tissues into chick embryos allows for this type of analysis. Using the QCPN antibody quail cells can be visualized and distinguished from the host tissues (Figure 1 C,D). In this case, only tissues derived from the ventral forebrai.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The method described allows examination of the tissue interactions between the basal forebrain and the adjacent ectoderm. This approach differs from previous forebrain transplant methods, because the donor tissue was restricted to the ventral forebrain. This eliminates transplantation of the neural crest cells, which have been shown to participate in patterning facial morphology9,10. Hence, restricting the graft to the basal forebrain was essential to evaluate th.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R01DE019648, R01DE018234, and R01DE019638.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
1x PBS TEK TEKZR114
35x10 mm Petri dish Falcon 1008
DMEM Thermofisher 11965084
Needle holder Fine Science Tools 26016-12
Neutral Red Sigma 553-24-2
No. 5 Dumont forceps Fine Science Tools 11252-20
Pasteur Pipets Thermofisher 13-678-6B
QCPN antibody Developmental Studies Hybridoma bank, Iowa University, Iowa, USA
Scissors Fine Science Tools 14058-11
Tungsten Needle Fine Science Tools 26000

  1. Waddington, C. Developmental Mechanics of Chicken and Duck Embryos. Nature. 125, 924-925 (1930).
  2. Noden, D. M. The role of the neural crest in patterning of avian cranial skeletal, connective, and muscle tissues. Developmental Biology. 96 (1), 144-165 (1983).
  3. Borue, X., Noden, D. M. Normal and aberrant craniofacial myogenesis by grafted trunk somitic and segmental plate mesoderm. Development. 131 (16), 3967-3980 (2004).
  4. Teillet, M. A., Ziller, C., Le Douarin, N. M. Quail-chick chimeras. Methods in Molecular Biology. 461, 337-350 (2008).
  5. Hu, D., Marcucio, R. S., Helms, J. A. A zone of frontonasal ectoderm regulates patterning and growth in the face. Development. 130 (9), 1749-1758 (2003).
  6. Hu, D., Marcucio, R. S. Assessing signaling properties of ectodermal epithelia during craniofacial development. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (49), (2011).
  7. Hu, D., Marcucio, R. S. Unique organization of the frontonasal ectodermal zone in birds and mammals. Developmental Biology. 325 (1), 200-210 (2009).
  8. Griffin, J. N., et al. Fgf8 dosage determines midfacial integration and polarity within the nasal and optic capsules. Developmental Biology. 374 (1), 185-197 (2013).
  9. Schneider, R. A., Helms, J. A. The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science. 299 (5606), 565-568 (2003).
  10. Tucker, A. S., Lumsden, A. Neural crest cells provide species-specific patterning information in the developing branchial skeleton. Evolution & Development. 6 (1), 32-40 (2004).
  11. Fish, J. L., Schneider, R. A. Assessing species-specific contributions to craniofacial development using quail-duck chimeras. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (87), (2014).
  12. Schneider, R. A. Neural crest and the origin of species-specific pattern. Genesis. 56 (6-7), 23219 (2018).
  13. Sohal, G. S. Effects of reciprocal forebrain transplantation on motility and hatching in chick and duck embryos. Brain Research. 113 (1), 35-43 (1976).
  14. Chen, C. C., Balaban, E., Jarvis, E. D. Interspecies avian brain chimeras reveal that large brain size differences are influenced by cell-interdependent processes. PLoS One. 7 (7), 42477 (2012).
  15. Hu, D., Marcucio, R. S. Neural crest cells pattern the surface cephalic ectoderm during FEZ formation. Developmental Dynamics. 241 (4), 732-740 (2012).
  16. Hu, D., et al. Signals from the brain induce variation in avian facial shape. Developmental Dynamics. 244 (9), 1133-1143 (2015).
  17. Hamburger, V., Hamilton, H. L. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. Journal of Morphology. 88 (1), 49-92 (1951).
  18. Xu, Q., et al. Correlations Between the Morphology of Sonic Hedgehog Expression Domains and Embryonic Craniofacial Shape. Evolutionary Biology. 42 (3), 379-386 (2015).
  19. Eames, B. F., Schneider, R. A. The genesis of cartilage size and shape during development and evolution. Development. 135 (23), 3947-3958 (2008).
  20. Merrill, A. E., Eames, B. F., Weston, S. J., Heath, T., Schneider, R. A. Mesenchyme-dependent BMP signaling directs the timing of mandibular osteogenesis. Development. 135 (7), 1223-1234 (2008).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved