JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Biology

Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Stimulated Raman Scattering Imaging of Deuterium Incorporation in a Single Bacterium

Published: February 14th, 2022

DOI:

10.3791/62398

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 2Boston University Photonics Center, Boston University, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 5Department of Chemistry, Boston University

This protocol presents rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) assay within 2.5 h by single-cell-stimulated Raman scattering imaging of D2O metabolism. This method applies to bacteria in the urine or whole blood environment, which is transformative for rapid single-cell phenotypic AST in the clinic.

To slow and prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant infections, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is in urgent need to quantitatively determine the antimicrobial effects on pathogens. It typically takes days to complete the AST by conventional methods based on the long-time culture, and they do not work directly for clinical samples. Here, we report a rapid AST method enabled by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging of deuterium oxide (D2O) metabolic incorporation. Metabolic incorporation of D2O into biomass and the metabolic activity inhibition upon exposure to antibiotics at the single bacterium level are monitored by SRS imaging. The single-cell metabolism inactivation concentration (SC-MIC) of bacteria upon exposure to antibiotics can be obtained after a total of 2.5 h of sample preparation and detection. Furthermore, this rapid AST method is directly applicable to bacterial samples in complex biological environments, such as urine or whole blood. SRS metabolic imaging of deuterium incorporation is transformative for rapid single-cell phenotypic AST in the clinic.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global threat to the effective treatment of infectious disease1. It is predicted that AMR will cause an additional 10 million deaths per year and $100 trillion global GDP loss by 2050 if no action for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria is taken1,2. This stresses the urgent need for rapid and innovative diagnostic methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of infectious bacteria to slow down the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and reduce the related mortality rate3. To ensure the best pos....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The use of human blood specimens is in accordance with the guidelines of the IRB of Boston University and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Specifically, the specimens are from a bank and are completely deidentified. These specimens are not considered to be human subjects by institutional review board (IRB) office at Boston University.

1. Preparation of bacteria and antibiotics stock solution

  1. Prepare the antibiotics (gentamicin sulfate or amoxicillin) stock solution at .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The effect of incubation time on deuterium incorporation is measured by spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy at the C-D (2070 to 2250 cm-1) and C-H (2,800 to 3,100 cm-1) region (Figure 4a). The time-lapse single-cell Raman spectra of P. aeruginosa cultured in 70% D2O containing medium show increasing CD/CH intensity over incubation time from 0 to 180 min. (Figure 4b) The increasing C-D abundance in single microbia.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Rapid AST can be obtained by assessing the response of bacterial metabolic activity to antibiotic treatment using single-cell SRS metabolic imaging within 2.5 h from the sample to SC-MIC results. The response of bacterial metabolic activity and antimicrobial susceptibility can be detected by monitoring the metabolic incorporation of D2O for biomolecule synthesis using SRS imaging of C-D bonds. Since water is ubiquitously used in living cells, SRS metabolic imaging provides a universal method for rapid AST. The.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

This work was supported by NIH R01AI141439 to J.-X.C and M.S, and R35GM136223 to J.-X.C.

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Acousto-optic modulation Gooch&Housego R15180-1.06-LTD Modulating stokes laser beam
Amoxicillin Sigma Aldrich A8523-5G
Bandpass filter Chroma HQ825/150m Block the stokes laser beam before the photodiode
Calcium chloride Sigma Aldrich C1016-100G Cation adjustment
Cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton Broth Fisher Scientific B12322 Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms by broth dilution methods
Centrifuge Thermo Scientific 75002542
Cover Glasses VWR 16004-318
Culture tube with snap cap Fisher brand 149569B
Daptomycin Acros A0386346
Deuterium oxide 151882 Organic solvent to dissolve antibiotics
Deuterium oxide-d6 Sigma Aldrich 156914 Organic solvent as a standard to calibrate SRS imaging system
Escherichia coli BW 25113 The Coli Genetic Stock Center 7636
Eppendorf polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes 1.5 mL Fisher brand 05-408-129
Gentamicin sulfate Sigma Aldrich G4918
Hydrophilic Polyvinylidene Fluoride filters Millipore-Sigma SLSV025NB pore size 5 µm
ImageJ software NIH Version: 2.0.0-rc-69/1.52t Image processing and analysis
Incubating orbital shaker set at 37 °C VWR 97009-890
Inoculation loop Sigma BR452201-1000EA
InSight DeepSee femtosecond pulsed laser Spectra-Physics Model: insight X3 Tunable laser source and fixed laser source at 1045 nm for SRS imaging
Lock-in amplifier Zurich Instrument HF2LI Demodulate the SRS signals
Oil condenser Olympus U-AAC NA 1.4
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 47085 (PAO1) American Type Culture Collection ATCC 47085
Photodiode Hamamatsu S3994-01 Detector
Polypropylene conical tube 15 mL Falcon 14-959-53A
Polypropylene filters Thermo Scientific 726-2520 pore size 0.2 µm
Sterile petri dishes Corning 07-202-031
Syringe 10 mL Fisher brand 14955459
UV/Vis Spectrophotometer Beckman Coulter Model: DU 530 Measuring optical density at wavelength of 600 nm
Vortex mixer VWR 97043-562
Water objective Olympus UPLANAPO/IR 60×, NA 1.2

  1. O'Neill, J. Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: final report and recommendations. The review on Antimicrobial Resistance. , (2016).
  2. Sugden, R., Kelly, R., Davies, S. Combatting antimicrobial resistance globally. Nature Microbiology. 1 (10), 16187 (2016).
  3. Kumar, A., et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Critical Care Medicine. 34 (6), 1589-1596 (2006).
  4. Reller, L. B., Weinstein, M., Jorgensen, J. H., Ferraro, M. J. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 49 (11), 1749-1755 (2009).
  5. Frickmann, H., Masanta, W. O., Zautner, A. E. Emerging rapid resistance testing methods for clinical microbiology laboratories and their potential impact on patient management. BioMed Research International. 2014, 375681 (2014).
  6. Avesar, J., et al. Rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing using nanoliter arrays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (29), 5787-5795 (2017).
  7. Schoepp, N. G., et al. Digital quantification of DNA replication and chromosome segregation enables determination of antimicrobial susceptibility after only 15 minutes of antibiotic exposure. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 55 (33), 9557-9561 (2016).
  8. van Belkum, A., et al. Innovative and rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 18 (5), 299-311 (2020).
  9. Hou, Z., An, Y., Hjort, K., Sandegren, L., Wu, Z. Time lapse investigation of antibiotic susceptibility using a microfluidic linear gradient 3D culture device. Lab on a Chip. 14 (17), 3409-3418 (2014).
  10. Choi, J., et al. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing by tracking single cell growth in a microfluidic agarose channel system. Lab on a Chip. 13 (2), 280-287 (2013).
  11. Lu, Y., et al. Single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing by confined microchannels and electrokinetic loading. Analytical Chemistry. 85 (8), 3971-3976 (2013).
  12. Kim, S. C., Cestellosblanco, S., Inoue, K., Zare, R. N. Miniaturized antimicrobial susceptibility test by combining concentration gradient generation and rapid cell culturing. Antibiotics. 4 (4), 455-466 (2015).
  13. Choi, J., et al. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis. Science Translational Medicine. 6 (267), (2014).
  14. Baltekin, &. #. 2. 1. 4. ;., Boucharin, A., Tano, E., Andersson, D. I., Elf, J. Antibiotic susceptibility testing in less than 30 min using direct single-cell imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (34), 9170-9175 (2017).
  15. Fredborg, M., et al. Real-time optical antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 51 (7), 2047-2053 (2013).
  16. Choi, J., et al. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis. Science Translational Medicine. 6 (267), (2014).
  17. Barczak, A. K., Hung, D. T. RNA signatures allow rapid identification of pathogens and antibiotic susceptibilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (16), 6217-6222 (2012).
  18. Schoepp, N. G., et al. Rapid pathogen-specific phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing using digital LAMP quantification in clinical samples. Science Translational Medicine. 9 (410), (2017).
  19. Novelli-Rousseau, A., et al. Culture-free antibiotic-susceptibility determination from single-bacterium Raman spectra. Scientific Reports. 8 (1), 1-12 (2018).
  20. Schröder, U. -. C., et al. Detection of vancomycin resistances in enterococci within 3 1/2 hours. Scientific Reports. 5, 8217 (2015).
  21. Liu, C. -. Y., et al. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers. Scientific Reports. 6 (1), 1-15 (2016).
  22. Chang, K. -. W., et al. Antibiotic susceptibility test with surface-enhanced raman scattering in a microfluidic system. Analytical Chemistry. 91 (17), 10988-10995 (2019).
  23. Galvan, D. D., Yu, Q. surface-enhanced raman scattering for rapid detection and characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Advanced Healthcare Materials. 7 (13), 1701335 (2018).
  24. Kirchhoff, J., et al. Simple ciprofloxacin resistance test and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration within 2 h using raman spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry. 90 (3), 1811-1818 (2018).
  25. Zhang, Z., Chen, L., Liu, L., Su, X., Rabinowitz, J. D. Chemical basis for deuterium labeling of fat and NADPH. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 139 (41), 14368-14371 (2017).
  26. Shi, L., et al. Optical imaging of metabolic dynamics in animals. Nature Communications. 9 (1), 2995 (2018).
  27. Berry, D., et al. Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (2), 194-203 (2015).
  28. Tao, Y., et al. Metabolic-activity-based assessment of antimicrobial effects by D2O-labeled single-cell raman microspectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry. 89 (7), 4108-4115 (2017).
  29. Yang, K., et al. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of pathogenic bacteria using heavy water-labeled single-cell raman spectroscopy in clinical samples. Analytical Chemistry. 91 (9), 6296-6303 (2019).
  30. Song, Y., et al. Raman-Deuterium Isotope Probing for in-situ identification of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in Thames River. Scientific reports. 7 (1), 16648 (2017).
  31. Freudiger, C. W., et al. Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Science. 322 (5909), 1857-1861 (2008).
  32. Cheng, J. -. X., Xie, X. S. Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine. Science. 350 (6264), (2015).
  33. Zhang, C., Zhang, D., Cheng, J. -. X. Coherent Raman scattering microscopy in biology and medicine. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering. 17, 415-445 (2015).
  34. Yue, S., Cheng, J. -. X. Deciphering single cell metabolism by coherent Raman scattering microscopy. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 33, 46-57 (2016).
  35. Hu, F., Shi, L., Min, W. Biological imaging of chemical bonds by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Nature Methods. 16 (9), 830-842 (2019).
  36. Ji, M., et al. Rapid, Label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Science Translational Medicine. 5 (201), (2013).
  37. He, R., Liu, Z., Xu, Y., Huang, W., Ma, H., Ji, M. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and spectroscopy with a rapid scanning optical delay line. Optics Letters. 42 (4), 659-662 (2017).
  38. Suzuki, Y., et al. Label-free chemical imaging flow cytometry by high-speed multicolor stimulated Raman scattering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (32), 15842-15848 (2019).
  39. Camp, C. H., et al. High-Speed Coherent Raman Fingerprint Imaging of Biological Tissues. Nature Photonics. 8, 627-634 (2014).
  40. Zhang, M., et al. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility by stimulated raman scattering imaging of D2O metabolic incorporation in a single bacterium. Advanced Science. 7 (19), 2001452 (2020).
  41. Michael, I., et al. A fidget spinner for the point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Nature Biomedical Engineering. 4 (6), 591-600 (2020).
  42. Bhattacharyya, R. P., et al. Simultaneous detection of genotype and phenotype enables rapid and accurate antibiotic susceptibility determination. Nature Medicine. 25 (12), 1858-1864 (2019).
  43. Stupar, P., et al. Nanomechanical sensor applied to blood culture pellets: a fast approach to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against agents of bloodstream infections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 23 (6), 400-405 (2017).
  44. Barber, A. E., Norton, J. P., Spivak, A. M., Mulvey, M. A. Urinary Tract Infections: Current and Emerging Management Strategies. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 (5), 719-724 (2013).
  45. Cohen, J., et al. Sepsis: a roadmap for future research. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 15 (5), 581-614 (2015).
  46. Choi, J., et al. rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test from positive blood cultures based on microscopic imaging analysis. Scientific Reports. 7 (1), 1148 (2017).
  47. Gherardi, G., et al. Comparative evaluation of the Vitek-2 Compact and Phoenix systems for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from blood cultures of Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 72 (1), 20-31 (2012).
  48. Machen, A., Drake, T., Wang, Y. F. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system. Plos One. 9, 87870 (2014).
  49. Simon, L., et al. Direct identification of 80 percent of bacteria from blood culture bottles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry using a 10-minute extraction protocol. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 57 (2), 01278 (2019).
  50. Leekha, S., Terrell, C. L., Edson, R. S. General principles of antimicrobial therapy. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 86 (2), 156-167 (2011).
  51. Johnson, L., et al. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in outpatient urinary Escherichia coli isolates. The American Journal of Medicine. 121 (10), 876-884 (2008).
  52. Van Belkum, A., et al. Developmental roadmap for antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 17 (1), 51-62 (2019).
  53. Dubourg, G., Lamy, B., Ruimy, R. Rapid phenotypic methods to improve the diagnosis of bacterial bloodstream infections: meeting the challenge to reduce the time to result. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 24 (9), 935-943 (2018).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved