Published: September 30th, 2016
Utilizing patient-derived tumors in a subcutaneous preclinical model is an excellent way to study the efficacy of novel therapies, predictive biomarker discovery, and drug resistant pathways. This model, in the drug development process, is essential in determining the fate of many novel anti-cancer therapies prior to clinical investigation.
Patient derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models provide a necessary platform in facilitating anti-cancer drug development prior to human trials. Human tumor pieces are injected subcutaneously into athymic nude mice (immunocompromised, T cell deficient) to create a bank of tumors and subsequently are passaged into different generations of mice in order to maintain these tumors from patients. Importantly, cellular heterogeneity of the original tumor is closely emulated in this model, which provides a more clinically relevant model for evaluation of drug efficacy studies (single agent and combination), biomarker analysis, resistant pathways and cancer stem cell biology. Some limitations of the PDTX model include the replacement of the human stroma with mouse stroma after the first generation in mice, inability to investigate treatment effects on metastasis due to the subcutaneous injections of the tumors, and the lack of evaluation of immunotherapies due to the use of immunocompromised mice. However, even with these limitations, the PDTX model provides a powerful preclinical platform in the drug discovery process.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant contributor to cancer deaths in the United States. In 2015, there were an estimated 132,700 new cases of CRC with 49,700 deaths 1. Although the prognosis in patients with localized disease is excellent, patients with advanced disease have poor outcomes, making this a major priority in the development of novel therapies. Despite standard of care chemotherapeutic regimens and newer biologics that are deployed against this disease, there has been only an incremental increase in overall survival. Accordingly, there is a significant effort in understanding the driver pathways involved in facilitating tumor growth in this ....
Ethics Statement: Patient-derived colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor specimens were obtained from consenting patients at the University of Colorado Hospital in accordance with a protocol approved by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board (08-0439). All animal work was performed under animal protocols approved by the University of Colorado Denver Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, Protocol # 51412(06)1E and 96813(04)1E).
1. Receiving and Preparing Patient Blood
Similarities of Common Mutations in the CRC PDTX Models and the TCGA
We investigated whether the percentage of common mutations (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, APC, CTNNB1 and TP53) in the CRC PDTX bank were representative to the mutation frequency seen in the CRC patient population. As shown in Figure 2A (TCGA) and B (CRC PDTX bank), the frequency of mutations in these gene.......
The PDTX drug discovery platform offers an improved model to the shortcomings of other preclinical models that are unreliable in predicting clinical activity of novel compounds. Importantly, tumors in this model are biologically stable, retain metastatic potential, and exhibit similar drug responsiveness from generation to generation. In this model, patient derived tumors are injected into athymic nude mice, passaged, and subsequently used in therapeutic evaluation. There are several critical steps for a successful PDTX .......
|RPMI or DMEM
|Non-essential Amino Acids
|Fetal Bovine Serum
|Thaw in -4 °C, then activate for 30 minutes at 60 °C water bath
|CPT blood tube
|Plastic tumor cutting dish
|Matrigel (gelatinous protein mixture)
|Store at -20 or -80 °C, then thaw on ice, do not leave at room temperature
|10% Formalin cups
|Liquid Nitrogen Dewar Storage
|Portable liquid nitrogen dewar
|Freezing container: Mr Frosty
|Innovative Research of America
|Scout Pro SP601
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