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Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Engineering

Testing of Nanoparticle Release from a Composite Containing Nanomaterial Using a Chamber System

Published: November 22nd, 2016

DOI:

10.3791/54449

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 2Institute of Nanoproduct Safety Research, Hoseo University

Nanoparticle release is tested using a chamber system that includes a condensation particle counter, an optical particle counter and sampling ports to collect filter samples for microscopy analysis. The proposed chamber system can be effectively used for nanomaterial release testing with a repeatable and consistent data range.

With the rapid development of nanotechnology as one of the most important technologies in the 21st century, interest in the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials is also increasing. Evaluating the nanomaterial release from products containing nanomaterials is a crucial step in assessing the safety of these products, and has resulted in several international efforts to develop consistent and reliable technologies for standardizing the evaluation of nanomaterial release. In this study, the release of nanomaterials from products containing nanomaterials is evaluated using a chamber system that includes a condensation particle counter, optical particle counter, and sampling ports to collect filter samples for electron microscopy analysis. The proposed chamber system is tested using an abrasor and disc-type nanocomposite material specimens to determine whether the nanomaterial release is repeatable and consistent within an acceptable range. The test results indicate that the total number of particles in each test is within 20% from the average after several trials. The release trends are similar and they show very good repeatability. Therefore, the proposed chamber system can be effectively used for nanomaterial release testing of products containing nanomaterials.

Nanomaterial exposure has mostly been studied in relation to workers in workplaces manufacturing, handling, fabricating, and packaging nanomaterials, while consumer exposure has not been studied extensively. A recent analysis of the environmental and health literature database created by the International Council of Nanotechnology (ICON) also indicated that most nanomaterial safety research has focused on hazards (83%) and potential exposure (16%), with the release from nanocomposites, representing consumer exposure, only representing 0.8% 1. Thus, very little is known about consumer exposure to nanomaterials.

Nanoparticle releas....

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1. Preparation of Instruments and Specimens

  1. Abrasor
    1. Based on an abrasion tester, use an abrasor with one specimen rotation stage (140 mm diameter), two abrasion wheel holders, and a rotation speed of 30 - 80 rpm.
    2. Use a weight to secure the abrasion wheel to the abrasion wheel holder, which also applies load to the test specimen.
    3. Install an additional air inlet to provide better suspension for the abrased particles, as shown in Figure 3. Use a.......

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Abrasion Test Repeatability Using Chamber System

The total particle numbers were consistent for 8 abrasion tests, as shown in Table 3. The CPC measured an average of 3.67 x109 particles, while the OPC counted an average of 1.98 x 109 particles (> 0.3 µm). The deviations were within 20%, which represented a consistent release of particles during abrasion.

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The most critical steps when conducting the nanorelease test from nanocomposite materials using an abrasion test were: 1) using a chamber system made of stainless steel with a neutralizer to remove the electrostatic charge generated by abrasion and reduce the deposition of particles on the chamber walls; 2) supplying additional air to provide better particle suspension; and 3) sampling the released particles and online monitoring using a CPC and OPC from the outlet that contained a mixer consisting of three perforated pl.......

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This research was supported by the "Development of technologies for safety evaluation and standardization of nanomaterials and nanoproducts" (10059135)" through the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology by the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy.

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Foamex Taeyoung, R. of Korea
MWCNT (multiwalled carbon nanotube) composite Hanwha, Incheon, R. of Korea 2% MWCNTs in low density polyethylene
Abrasion Paper Derfos, R. of Korea #100 100 grit sand paper
Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) TSI Inc, Shoreview, MN UCPC 3775
Optical Paritcle Counter (OPC) Grimm, Ainring, Germany 1.109
Mini Particle Sampler Ecomesure, Saclay, France
Quantifoil Holey Carbon Film TED PELLA Inc. USA 1.2/1.3
Filter Holder custom made
Polycarbonate Filter  Millipore, USA CAT No. GTTP02500
Soft X-ray Ionizer (Neutralizer) SUNJE, R. of Korea SXN-05U
Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) Hitachi S-4300

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