Immunology and Infection
Published: September 27th, 2018
A reproducible, accurate, and time efficient quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to enumerate T7 bacteriophage is described here. The protocol clearly describes phage genomic DNA preparation, PCR reaction preparation, qPCR cycling conditions, and qPCR data analysis.
This protocol describes the use of quantitative PCR (qPCR) to enumerate T7 phages from phage selection experiments (i.e., "biopanning"). qPCR is a fluorescence-based approach to quantify DNA, and here, it is adapted to quantify phage genomes as a proxy for phage particles. In this protocol, a facile phage DNA preparation method is described using high-temperature heating without additional DNA purification. The method only needs small volumes of heat-treated phages and small volumes of the qPCR reaction. qPCR is high-throughput and fast, able to process and obtain data from a 96-well plate of reactions in 2–4 h. Compared to other phage enumeration approaches, qPCR is more time-efficient. Here, qPCR is used to enumerate T7 phages identified from biopanning against in vitro cystic fibrosis-like mucus model. The qPCR method can be extended to quantify T7 phages from other experiments, including other types of biopanning (e.g., immobilized protein binding, in vivo phage screening) and other sources (e.g., water systems or body fluids). In summary, this protocol can be modified to quantify any DNA-encapsulated viruses.
Bacteriophage (phage) display technology, developed by George Smith in 1985, is a powerful, high-throughput approach to identify peptide or protein ligands against targets or receptors from the cell membrane, disease antigens, cellular organelles or specific organs and tissues in the past two decades1,2. Here, random libraries of polypeptides or single chain antibodies are displayed on the coat proteins of phages (typically M13 or T7), and specific ligands can be identified from panning against immobilized proteins in vitro or in vivo biological systems through an iterative selection process.....
1. Primer Design and Analysis for T7 Phage Genomic DNA
Different primer design tools can be used to design qPCR primers. Typically, primer design programs have their own built-in algorithms to calculate and validate the key parameters of the primers, e.g., GC%, Tm, primer dimer or hairpin formation, etc. Generally, the key criteria are similar in different primer design tools, and primers can be designed following their instructions. Primer BLAST can be used to confirm the specificity of the primers. One primer pair that tar.......
We developed qPCR methods to quantify phage genomic DNA5, and here we described and adapted a qPCR method to enumerate T7 phages selected against a CF-like mucus barrier. Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines were adapted to develop and validate the qPCR method for enumeration of T7 phages15. The protocol we developed to quantify phages from biopanning experiments is a time-efficient, reliable, and economical approac.......
|Materials and reagents
|Primers for T7 genomic DNA
|T7Select packaging control DNA
|MicroAmp optical 96-well reaction plate
|qPCR master mix--Power up SYBR Green master mix
|MicroAmp optical adhesive film kit
|T7Select 415-1 Cloning Kit
|User protocols : http://www.emdmillipore.com/US/en/product/T7Select-415-1-Cloning-Kit,EMD_BIO-70015#anchor_USP
|DNase I solution
|24-well transwell plate
|UltraPure DNase/RNase-Free Distilled H2O
|Phosphate Buffered Saline (1X)
|ViiA7 Real-Time PCR System with Fast 96-Well Block
|Heraeus Pico 21 Microcentrifuge
|Fisherbrand Digital Vortex Mixer
|HERMO SCIENTIFIC Multi-Blok Heater
|Sorvall Legend X1 Centrifuge
|M-20 Microplate Swinging Bucket Rotor
|QuantStudio Real-time PCR software
|Real-time qPCR primer design
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