JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Medicine

Clinical Protocol of Producing Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction for Potential Cartilage Regeneration

Published: September 29th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58363

1Mipro Medical Clinic, 2National Leading Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University
* These authors contributed equally

Here, we present a protocol to produce an adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction and its application to improve knee functions by regenerating cartilage-like tissue in human patients with osteoarthritis.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common debilitating disorders. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to improve the functions of the knees by using different forms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In Korea, bone marrow concentrates and cord blood-derived stem cells have been approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) for cartilage regeneration. In addition, an adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) has been allowed by the KFDA for joint injections in human patients. Autologous adipose tissue-derived SVF contains extracellular matrix (ECM) in addition to mesenchymal stem cells. ECM excretes various cytokines that, along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, may help MSCs to regenerate cartilage and improve knee functions. In this article, we presented a protocol to improve knee functions by regenerating cartilage-like tissue in human patients with OA. The result of the protocol was first reported in 2011 followed by a few additional publications. The protocol involves liposuction to obtain autologous lipoaspirates that are mixed with collagenase. This lipoaspirates-collagenase mixture is then cut and homogenized to remove large fibrous tissue that may clog up the needle during the injection. Afterwards, the mixture is incubated to obtain adipose tissue-derived SVF. The resulting adipose tissue-derived SVF, containing both adipose tissue-derived MSCs and remnants of ECM, is injected into knees of patients, combined with HA and calcium chloride activated PRP. Included are three cases of patients who were treated with our protocol resulting in improvement of knee pain, swelling, and range of motion along with MRI evidence of hyaline cartilage-like tissue.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have the capability to regenerate cartilage1,2,3,4,5,6. They can be easily obtained from various sources: bone marrow, cord blood, and adipose tissue among many others. Among these sources, adipose tissue is the only source where a sufficient number of MSCs can be obtained without any culture expansion to regenerate cartilage in clinical settings7,8. Autologous bone marrow....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The approval and consent to report following case reports were waived by Myongji University Institutional Review Board committee (MJUIRB). Further, this clinical protocol was in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and regulation guidelines of the KFDA. For the procedures, informed consents were obtained from the patients.

1. Liposuction

NOTE: Perform with sterile technique.

  1. Use the following inclusion criteria: (1) MRI evidence of stage 3 OA.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Three patients (one 87-year-old female with stage 3 OA, one 68-year-old male with stage 3 OA, and one 60-year-old female with stage 3 OA) without any significant past medical history presented to the clinic with persistent knee pain and desired for potential autologous adipose tissue-derived SVF treatment. All three patients had their knee examined by an orthopedic surgeon and were offered to have total knee replacement (TKR) and were reluctant to have the surgery. Prior to the procedure,.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

In 2001, Zuk et al. isolated stem cells from adipose tissue by breaking down the collagen matrix with collagenase6. Afterwards, the group showed that these stem cells isolated from the adipose tissue could transform into cartilage and other tissues of mesoderm in origin, proving that these stem cells were mesenchymal in origin. 

Likewise, the procedure presented in this article is a modified protocol to apply the similar method to human patients. The main .......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The author acknowledges the support from the staff of Mipro Medical Clinic and the figure design by Jaepil/David Lee. This work was supported by research grants from the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the MSIT (number NRF-2017M3A9E4078014); and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (numbers NRF-2017R1A2B4002315 and NRF-2016R1C1B2010308).

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Material
5% Betadine (povidone-iodine)  Firson Co., Ltd. 657400260
2% Lidocaine  Daehan Pharmaceutical Co. 670603480
Tumescent solution  Myungmoon Pharm. Co. Ltd. N01BB01 The solution was composed of 500 mL normal saline, 40 mL 2% lidocaine, 20 mL 0.5% marcaine, and 0.5 mL epinephrine 1:1000.
Liberase TL and TM research grade  Roche Applied Science 5401020001
D5LR Dahan Pharm. Co., Ltd. 645101072 Dextrose 5% in lactated Ringer's solution 
Anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution  Fenwal, Inc. NDC:0942-0641 The solution was composed of 0.8% citric acid,
0.22% sodium citrate, and 0.223% dextrose.
3% (w/v) Calcium chloride  Choongwae Pharmaceutical Co. 644902101
0.5% (w/v) HA (Hyaluronic acid ) Dongkwang pharm. Co., Ltd. 645902030
0.25% Ropivacaine Huons Co., Ltd. 670600150
Equipment
3.0 mm Cannula  WOOJU Medical Instruments Co. ML30200
60-mL Luer-Lock syringe BD (Becton Dickinson)  309653
Centrifuge Barrel Kit  CPL Co., Ltd. 30-0827044
Tissue homogenizer that contains blades CPL Co., Ltd. 30-0827045
Rotating incubator mixer Medikan Co., Ltd MS02060092
Centrifuge Hanil Scientific Inc. CE1133
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Philips Medical Systems Inc. 18068
Ultrasound Imaging System Samsung Medison co., Ltd CT-LK-V10-ICM-09.05.2007

  1. Arnoczky, S. P. Building a meniscus. Biologic considerations. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. (367 Suppl), S244-S253 (1999).
  2. Barry, F. P. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in joint disease. Novartis Foundation Symposium. 249, 86-241 (2003).
  3. Usuelli, F. G., et al. Adipose-derived stem cells in orthopaedic pathologies. British Medical Bulletin. 124 (1), 31-54 (2017).
  4. Zhang, H. N., Li, L., Leng, P., Wang, Y. Z., Lv, C. Y. Uninduced adipose-derived stem cells repair the defect of full-thickness hyaline cartilage. Chinese Journal of Traumatology. 12 (2), 92-97 (2009).
  5. Zuk, P. A., et al. Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (12), 4279-4295 (2002).
  6. Zuk, P. A., et al. Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Engineering. 7 (2), 211-228 (2001).
  7. Baer, P. C., Geiger, H. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: tissue localization, characterization, and heterogeneity. Stem Cells International. 2012, 812693 (2012).
  8. Zhu, Y., et al. Adipose-derived stem cell: a better stem cell than BMSC. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 26 (6), 664-675 (2008).
  9. Bellei, B., Migliano, E., Tedesco, M., Caputo, S., Picardo, M. Maximizing non-enzymatic methods for harvesting adipose-derived stem from lipoaspirate: technical considerations and clinical implications for regenerative surgery. Scientific Reports. 7 (1), 10015 (2017).
  10. Pak, J., Lee, J. H., Park, K. S., Jeong, B. C., Lee, S. H. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix. BioResearch Open Access. 5 (1), 192-200 (2016).
  11. Alexander, R. W. Understanding Adipose-derived Stromal Vascular Fraction (AD-SVF) Cell Biology and Use on the Basis of Cellular, Chemical, Structural and Paracrine Components: A Concise Review. Journal of Prolotherapy. 4, e855-e869 (2012).
  12. Benders, K. E., et al. Extracellular matrix scaffolds for cartilage and bone regeneration. Trends in Biotechnology. 31 (3), 169-176 (2013).
  13. Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Cell therapy: Rules and Regulations. KFDA. , (2009).
  14. Pak, J. Regeneration of human bones in hip osteonecrosis and human cartilage in knee osteoarthritis with autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells: a case series. Journal of Medical Case Reports. 5, 296 (2011).
  15. Pak, J., Chang, J. J., Lee, J. H., Lee, S. H. Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 14, 337 (2013).
  16. Pak, J., Lee, J. H., Kartolo, W. A., Lee, S. H. Cartilage Regeneration in Human with Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: Current Status in Clinical Implications. BioMed Research International. 2016, 4702674 (2016).
  17. Pak, J., Lee, J. H., Lee, S. H. A novel biological approach to treat chondromalacia patellae. PLoS One. 8 (5), e64569 (2013).
  18. Pak, J., Lee, J. H., Lee, S. H. Regenerative repair of damaged meniscus with autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells. BioMed Research International. 2014, 436029 (2014).
  19. Aust, L., et al. Yield of human adipose-derived adult stem cells from liposuction aspirates. Cytotherapy. 6 (1), 7-14 (2004).
  20. De Ugarte, D. A., et al. Comparison of multi-lineage cells from human adipose tissue and bone marrow. Cells Tissues Organs. 174 (3), 101-109 (2003).
  21. Guilak, F., et al. Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 206 (1), 229-237 (2006).
  22. Mitchell, J. B., et al. Immunophenotype of human adipose-derived cells: temporal changes in stromal-associated and stem cell-associated markers. Stem Cells. 24 (2), 376-385 (2006).
  23. Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M. J., et al. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure. Cytotherapy. 8 (2), 166-177 (2006).
  24. . Liberase TL information available from Sigma Millipore online Available from: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/roche/05401020001?lang=en&region=US (2018)
  25. . Liberase TM information available from Sigma Millipore online Available from: https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/roche/Libtmro?lang=en&region=US (2018)
  26. Childs, J. D., Piva, S. R. Psychometric properties of the functional rating index in patients with low back pain. European Spine Journal. 14 (10), 1008-1012 (2005).
  27. Price, D. D., McGrath, P. A., Rafii, A., Buckingham, B. The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain. Pain. 17 (1), 45-56 (1983).
  28. Pilgaard, L., Lund, P., Rasmussen, J. G., Fink, T., Zachar, V. Comparative analysis of highly defined proteases for the isolation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Regenerative Medicine. 3 (5), 705-715 (2008).
  29. D'Ambrosi, R., Indino, C., Maccario, C., Manzi, L., Usuelli, F. G. Autologous Microfractured and Purified Adipose Tissue for Arthroscopic Management of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (131), e56395 (2018).
  30. Packer, J. D., Chang, W. T., Dragoo, J. L. The use of vibrational energy to isolate adipose-derived stem cells. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open. 6 (1), e1620 (2018).
  31. Hanke, C. W., Bernstein, G., Bullock, S. Safety of tumescent liposuction in 15,336 patients. National survey results. Dermatologic Surgery. 21 (5), 459-462 (1995).
  32. Illouz, Y. G. Complications of liposuction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 33 (1), 129-163 (2006).
  33. Dixit, V. V., Wagh, M. S. Unfavourable outcomes of liposuction and their management. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery. 46 (2), 377-392 (2013).
  34. Lehnhardt, M., et al. Major and lethal complications of liposuction: a review of 72 cases in Germany between 1998 and 2002. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 121 (6), 396e-403e (2008).
  35. Iyer, S. S., Rojas, M. Anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells: novel concept for future therapies. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 8 (5), 569-581 (2008).
  36. Zhang, J., Middleton, K. K., Fu, F. H., Im, H. J., Wang, J. H. HGF mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on injured tendons. PLoS One. 8 (6), e67303 (2013).
  37. Li, N. Y., Yuan, R. T., Chen, T., Chen, L. Q., Jin, X. M. Effect of platelet-rich plasma and latissimus dorsi muscle flap on osteogenesis and vascularization of tissue-engineered bone in dogs. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 67 (9), 1850-1858 (2009).
  38. Parsons, P., et al. The biological effect of platelet rich-plasma on the fracture healing process. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. 91-B, 293 (2009).
  39. Wu, W., Chen, F., Liu, Y., Ma, Q., Mao, T. Autologous injectable tissue-engineered cartilage by using platelet-rich plasma: experimental study in a rabbit model. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 65 (10), 1951-1957 (2007).
  40. Cooper, T. W., Eisen, A. Z., Stricklin, G. P., Welgus, H. G. Platelet-derived collagenase inhibitor: characterization and subcellular localization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 82 (9), 2779-2783 (1985).
  41. Uzuki, M., Sawai, T. A. A comparison of the affinity of sodium hyaluronate of various molecular weights for degenerated cartilage: a histochemical study using hyaluronic acid binding protein. International Congress Series. 1223, 279-284 (2001).
  42. Pagano, C., et al. Molecular and morphometric description of adipose tissue during weight changes: a quantitative tool for assessment of tissue texture. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 14 (5), 897-902 (2004).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved