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Measuring Cardiac Output in a Swine Model

Published: May 11th, 2021



1R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland Medical System, 2Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Thermodilution, pressure-volume loop catheters, and contrast ventriculography are reliable and accurate methods for determining cardiac physiology such as stroke volume and cardiac output in a laboratory setting in swine.

Swine are frequently used in medical research given their similar cardiac physiology to that of humans. Measuring cardiac parameters such as stroke volume and cardiac output are essential in this type of research. Contrast ventriculography, thermodilution, and pressure-volume loop (PV-loop) catheters can be used to accurately obtain cardiac performance data depending on which resources and expertise are available. For this study,five Yorkshire swine were anesthetized and intubated. Central venous and arterial access was obtained to place the necessary measurement instruments.A temperature probe was placed in the aortic root. A cold saline bolus was delivered to the right atrium and temperature deflection curve was recorded. Integration of the area under the curve allowed for the calculation of the current cardiac output.A pigtail catheter was percutaneously placed in the left ventricle and 30 mL of iodinated contrast was power injected over 2 seconds. Digital subtraction angiography images were uploaded to volumetric analysis software to calculate the stroke volume and cardiac output. A pressure volume-loop catheter was placed into the left ventricle (LV) and provided continuous pressure and volume data of the LV, which allowed the calculation of both stroke volume and cardiac output.All three methods demonstrated good correlation with each other. The PV-loop catheter and thermodilution exhibited the best correlation with a 3% error and a Pearson coefficient of 0.99, with 95% CI=0.97 to 1.1, (p=0.002). The PV-loop catheter against ventriculography also showed good correlation with a 6% error and a Pearson coefficient of 0.95, 95% CI=0.96 to 1.1 (p=0.01). Finally, thermodilution against ventriculography had a 2% error with r=0.95, 95% CI=0.93 to 1.11, (p=0.01). In conclusion, we state that the PV-loop catheter, contrast ventriculography, and thermodilution each offer certain advantages depending on the researcher's requirements. Each method is reliable and accurate for measuring various cardiac parameters in swine such as the stroke volume and cardiac output.

Swine are frequently used in hemorrhage control and resuscitation research due to their similar physiology to humans. Integral to resuscitation research is continuous cardiac output monitoring to assess the physiological response to interventions. Several clinical systems exist such as pulmonary artery (PA) catheters and pulse contour analysis-based systems1. Additionally, echocardiography (echo), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can all be used to capture hemodynamic data. Images obtained during end-diastole and systole can be used to determine the volume of blood ejected during that cardiac cycle. While these tech....

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Procedures were approved by the University of Maryland, Baltimore Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Approval #0320017) and conformed to National Institutes of Health guidelines for ethical animal research. Five adult male Yorkshire swine weighing between 50 and 70 kg were enrolled into the study. This study utilized a digital data collection system and paired software to record all hemodynamic and temperature data. Measuring cardiac parameters in the swine model consisted of the following steps: preparation, t.......

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The weight of the swine ranged from 51.4 kg to 61.5 kg with a mean weight of 56.6 ± 3.6 kg. The average stroke volumes measured by PV-loop catheter, ventriculography, and thermodilution across all five subjects were 58.0 ± 12.0 mL, 57.6 ± 8.5 mL, and 53.0 ± 9.8 mL, respectively. The average cardiac outputs measured by a PV-loop catheter, ventriculography, and thermodilution across all five subjects were 5.0 ± 1.1 L/min, 5.3 ± 1.2 L/min, and 5.2 ± 1.0 L/min,.......

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This study details a standardized method of three different ways to accurately measure cardiac output in swine. Swine has analogous cardiovascular anatomy and physiology to humans and is commonly used as a model for human cardiac physiology, specifically for pre-clinical evaluations of surgical and interventional processes10. This allows swine to serve as the primary model for cardiovascular physiology, pathology, and emerging biotechnology11. In order to assess these .......

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
0.9% sodium chloride injection Hospira 0409-4888-50
7 Fr Introducer Kit Terumo RCFW-5.0-35
Anesthesia Machine Drager Fabius Tiro
Contrast Power Injector GEHealthcare E8004N
Fluoroscope GEHealthcare OEC 9800
Heating/Cooling T/pump Gaymar Tp-700
Isoflurane Baxter 10019-360-40
Jackie catheter Terumo 40-5023
Omnipaque GEHealthcare 559289
PowerChart ADinstruments ML866/P Software
PowerLab ADinstruments PL3516
PV-loop catheter Transonic Prefer pigtail tip to straight tip
PV-loop module Transonic FFS-097-A004
Surgical suture, black braided silk, 3.0 Surgical Speciaties Corp.
Thermocouple probe ADinstruments MLT1401
Ultrasound probe Philips L12-4
Various-sized syringes
ViewPlus Sanders Data Systems Software

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