JoVE Logo
Faculty Resource Center

Sign In

Summary

Abstract

Introduction

Protocol

Representative Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

Materials

References

Medicine

Real-Time Dynamic Navigation System for the Precise Quad-Zygomatic Implant Placement in a Patient with a Severely Atrophic Maxilla

Published: October 18th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62489

1The 2nd Dental Center, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Center for Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, 2Department of Dental Implantology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Center for Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology
* These authors contributed equally

Here, we present a protocol to achieve precise quad-zygomatic implant placement in patients with severely atrophic maxilla using a real-time dynamic navigation system.

Zygomatic implants (ZIs) are an ideal way to address cases of a severely atrophic edentulous maxilla and maxilla defects because they replace extensive bone augmentation and shorten the treatment cycle. However, there are risks associated with the placement of ZIs, such as penetration of the orbital cavity or infra-temporal fossa. Furthermore, the placement of multiple ZIs makes this surgery risky and more difficult to perform. Potential intraoperative complications are extremely dangerous and may cause irreparable losses. Here, we describe a practical, feasible, and reproducible protocol for a real-time surgical navigation system for precisely placing quad-zygomatic implants in the severely atrophic maxilla of patients with residual bone that does not meet the requirements of conventional implants. Hundreds of patients have received ZIs at our department based on this protocol. The clinical outcomes have been satisfactory, the intraoperative and postoperative complications have been low, and the accuracy indicated by infusion of the designed image and postoperative three-dimensional image has been high. This method should be utilized during the entire surgical procedure to ensure ZI placement safety.

In the 1990s, Branemark introduced an alternative technique for bone grafting, the zygomatic implant (ZI), which has also been called the zygomaticus fixture1. It was initially used for the treatment of trauma victims and patients with tumor resection where there was a defect in the maxillary structure. After maxillectomy, many patients retained anchorage only in the body of the zygoma or in the frontal extension of the zygomatic bone1,2,3.

More recently, the ZI technique has been widely used in edentulous and dentate patien....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

All of the clinical protocols were approved by the Medical Ethics Review Committee of the Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine (SH9H-2020-T29-3).

1. Patient selection

  1. The patient inclusion criteria were as follows (Table 1).
    1. Ensure that the patient presents a completely edentulous maxilla or partially edentulous maxilla with few extremely loose teeth (Figure 1A

      Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The enrolled patient was a 60-year-old woman without any systematic diseases (Figure 1A-D, F). After CBCT scanning, the alveolar ridge in the anterior maxilla was less than 2.9 mm, while the residual bone height in the posterior maxilla region was less than 2.4 mm (Figure 1E, G and Table 1). The width and thickness of the zygomatic bone were approximately 22.4-23.6 mm and 6.1-8.0 mm (

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Reconstructive rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla using grafts is difficult because it requires good surgical technique, coverage of high-quality soft tissue over the graft, a significant amount of patient cooperation, and patients with health favorable for the finial restoration17,18. The placement of dental implants for reconstruction in patients with maxillary atrophy represents a significant clinical challenge. The pattern of facial bone resorption is ass.......

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

The authors thank Dr. Shengchi Fan for kindly providing valuable navigation technical support. This case report was funded by the Key project of China's Ministry of Science and Technology (2017YFB1302904), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (No. 21ZR1437700), the Clinical research plan of SHDC (SHDC2020CR3049B), and the Combined Engineering and Medical Project of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (YG2021QN72).

....

Log in or to access full content. Learn more about your institution’s access to JoVE content here

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Bistoury scalpel Hufriedy Group 10-130-05
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 35mm Nobel Biocare AB 34724 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 40mm Nobel Biocare AB 34735 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 42.5mm Nobel Biocare AB 34736 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 45mm Nobel Biocare AB 34737 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 47.5mm Nobel Biocare AB 34738 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 50mm Nobel Biocare AB 34739 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
Branemark system zygoma TiUnite RP 52.5mm Nobel Biocare AB 34740 TiUnite implant with overlength to place from the maxilla to the zygoma
CBCT Planmeca Oy,Helsinki, Finland Pro Max 3D Max
connection to handpiece Nobel Biocare AB 29081 the accessories to connect the intrument
Drill guard Nobel Biocare AB 29162 the accessories to protect the lips and soft tissue during the surgery
Drill guard short Nobel Biocare AB 29162 the accessories to protect the lips and soft tissue during the surgery
Handpiece zygoma 20:1 Nobel Biocare AB 32615 the basic instrument for implant drill
Instrument adapter array size L BRAINLAB AG 41801
Instrument adapter array size M BRAINLAB AG 41798
Instrument calibration matrix BRAINLAB AG 41874 a special tool for drill to calibration
I-plan automatic image fusion software STL data import/export for I-plan VectorVision2®, (I-plan CMF software) BRAINLAB AG inapplicability the software for navigation surgery planning
Multi-unit abutment 3mm Nobel Biocare AB 32330 the connection accessory between the implant and the titanium base
Multi-unit abutment 5mm Nobel Biocare AB 32331 the connection accessory between the implant and the titanium base
Periosteal elevator Hufriedy Group PPR3/9A the instrument for open flap surgery
Pilot drill Nobel Biocare AB 32630 the drill for the surgery
Pilot drill short Nobel Biocare AB 32632 the drill for the surgery measuring the depth of the implant holes
Pointer with blunt tip for cranial/ENT BRAINLAB AG 53106
Reference headband star BRAINLAB AG 41877
Round bur Nobel Biocare AB DIA 578-0 the drill for the surgery
Screwdriver manual Nobel Biocare AB 29149
Skull reference array BRAINLAB AG 52122 a special made metal reference for navigation camera to receive the signal
Skull reference base BRAINLAB AG 52129
Suture vicryl 4-0 Johnson &Johnson, Ethicon VCP310H
Temporary copping multi-unit titanium (with prosthetic screw) Nobel Biocare AB 29046 the temporary titanium base to fix the teeth
Titanium mini-screw CIBEI MB105-2.0*9 the mini-screw for navigation registration
Twist drill Nobel Biocare AB 32628 the drill for the surgery
Twist drill short Nobel Biocare AB 32629 the drill for the surgery
Zygoma depth indicator angled Nobel Biocare AB 29162
Zygoma depth indicator straight Nobel Biocare AB 29162 the measurement scale for
Zygoma handle Nobel Biocare AB 29162 the instrument for zygomatic implant placement

  1. Francischone, C. L., Vasconcelos, L. W., Filho, H. N., Francischone, C. E., Sartori, I. M. Chapter 15. The zygoma fixture. The osseointegration book. From calvarium to calcaneus. , 317-320 (2005).
  2. Weischer, T., Schettler, D., Mohr, C. Titanium implants in the zygoma as retaining elements after hemimaxillectomy. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 12 (2), 211-214 (1997).
  3. Jensen, O. T., Brownd, C., Blacker, J. Nasofacial prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 7 (2), 203-211 (1992).
  4. Duarte, L. R., Filho, H. N., Francischone, C. E., Peredo, L. G., Branemark, P. I. The establishment of a protocol for the total rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae employing four zygomatic fixtures in an immediate loading system--a 30-month clinical and radiographic follow-up. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 9 (4), 186-196 (2007).
  5. Hung, K. F., et al. Accuracy of a real-time surgical navigation system for the placement of quad zygomatic implants in the severe atrophic maxilla: A pilot clinical study. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 19 (3), 458-465 (2017).
  6. Wu, Y., Wang, F., Huang, W., Fan, S. Real-time navigation in zygomatic implant placement: Workflow. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America. 31 (3), 357-367 (2019).
  7. Wang, F., et al. Reliability of four zygomatic implant-supported prostheses for the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla: a systematic review. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 30 (2), 293-298 (2015).
  8. Xiaojun, C., et al. An integrated surgical planning and virtual training system. IEEE 2010 International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing (ICALIP). , 1257-1261 (2010).
  9. Fan, S., et al. The effect of the configurations of fiducial markers on accuracy of surgical navigation in zygomatic implant placement: An in vitro study. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 34 (1), 85-90 (2019).
  10. Xiaojun, C., Ming, Y., Yanping, L., Yiqun, W., Chengtao, W. Image guided oral implantology and its application in the placement of zygoma implants. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 93 (2), 162-173 (2009).
  11. Cawood, J. I., Howell, R. A. A classification of the edentulous jaws. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. 17 (4), 232-236 (1988).
  12. Davo, R., Pons, O., Rojas, J., Carpio, E. Immediate function of four zygomatic implants: a 1-year report of a prospective study. European Journal of Oral Implantology. 3 (4), 323-334 (2010).
  13. Jensen, O. T. Complete arch site classification for all-on-4 immediate function. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 112 (4), 741-751 (2014).
  14. Triplett, R. G., Schow, S. R., Laskin, D. M. Oral and maxillofacial surgery advances in implant dentistry. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 15 (1), 47-55 (2000).
  15. Aparicio, C. A proposed classification for zygomatic implant patient based on the zygoma anatomy guided approach (ZAGA): a cross-sectional survey. European Journal of Oral Implantology. 4 (3), 269-275 (2011).
  16. Hung, K. F., et al. Measurement of the zygomatic region for the optimal placement of quad zygomatic implants. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 19 (5), 841-848 (2017).
  17. Kahnberg, K. E., Nystrom, E., Bartholdsson, L. Combined use of bone grafts and Br fixtures in the treatment of severely resorbed maxillae. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 4 (4), 297-304 (1989).
  18. Nystrom, E., Kahnberg, K. E., Gunne, J. Bone grafts and Br implants in the treatment of the severely resorbed maxilla: A 2-year longitudinal study. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 8 (1), 45-53 (1993).
  19. Jensen, S. S., Terheyden, H. Bone augmentation procedures in localized defects in the alveolar ridge: Clinical results with different bone grafts and bone-substitute materials. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 24, 218-236 (2009).
  20. Bedrossian, E. Rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla with the zygoma concept: A 7-year prospective study. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 25 (6), 1213-1221 (2010).
  21. Dhamankar, D., Gupta, A. R., Mahadevan, J. Immediate implant loading: A case report. Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society. 10 (1), 64-66 (2010).
  22. Aparicio, C., et al. Zygomatic implants: indications, techniques and outcomes, and the zygomatic success code. Periodontol 2000. 66 (1), 41-58 (2014).
  23. Chrcanovic, B. R., Abreu, M. H. Survival and complications of zygomatic implants: A systematic review. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 17 (2), 81-93 (2013).
  24. Brånemark, P. I., et al. Zygoma fixture in the management of advanced atrophy of the maxilla: Technique and long-term results. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery. 38 (2), 70-85 (2004).
  25. Balshi, T. J., Wolfinger, G. J., Petropoulos, V. C. Quadruple zygomatic implant support for retreatment of resorbed iliac crest bone graft transplant. Implant Dentistry. 12 (1), 47-53 (2003).
  26. Chrcanovic, B. R., Oliveira, D. R., Custódio, A. L. Accuracy evaluation of computed tomography-derived stereolithographic surgical guides in zygomatic implant placement in human cadavers. The Journal of Oral Implantology. 36 (5), 345-355 (2010).
  27. Gellrich, N. C., et al. Computer-assisted secondary reconstruction of unilateral posttraumatic orbital deformity. Plast and Reconstructive Surgery. 110 (6), 1417-1429 (2002).
  28. Watzinger, F., et al. Placement of endosteal implants in the zygoma after maxillectomy: A Cadaver study using surgical navigation. Plast and Reconstructive Surgery. 107 (3), 659-667 (2001).
  29. Wagner, A., et al. Computer-aided placement of endosseous oral implants in patients after ablative tumour surgery: Assessment of accuracy. Clinical Oral Implants Research. 14 (3), 340-348 (2003).
  30. Casap, N., Wexler, A., Tarazi, E. Application of a surgical navigation system for implant surgery in a deficient alveolar ridge postexcision of an odontogenic myxoma. The Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. 63 (7), 982-988 (2005).
  31. Pellegrino, G., Tarsitano, A., Basile, F., Pizzigallo, A., Marchetti, C. Computer-aided rehabilitation of maxillary oncological defects using zygomatic implants: A defect-based classification. The Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. 73 (12), 1-11 (2015).
  32. Fan, S., et al. The effect of the configurations of fiducial markers on accuracy of surgical navigation in zygomatic implant placement: An in vitro study. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 34 (1), 85-90 (2019).
  33. D'Haese, J., Van De Velde, T., Elaut, L., De Bruyn, H. A prospective study on the accuracy of mucosally supported stereolithographic surgical guides in fully edentulous maxillae. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 14 (2), 293-303 (2012).
  34. Stübinger, S., Buitrago-Tellez, C., Cantelmi, G. Deviations between placed and planned implant positions: an accuracy pilot study of skeletally supported stereolithographic surgical templates. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 16 (4), 540-551 (2014).

This article has been published

Video Coming Soon

JoVE Logo

Privacy

Terms of Use

Policies

Research

Education

ABOUT JoVE

Copyright © 2024 MyJoVE Corporation. All rights reserved