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Medicine

Assessing Neuroprotective Effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Extract Using a Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model

Published: December 9th, 2018

DOI:

10.3791/58454

1School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, 2College of Medicine, Dongguk University, 3Kyunghee Naseul Korean Medicine Clinic
* These authors contributed equally

In this study, we modify an existing experimental method to obtain more reproducible results, by establishing a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mouse model. Oral administration of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome (GR) methanol extract (GRex), following stroke induction, significantly decreased total infarction volume relative to the untreated control group.

Ischemia followed by reperfusion of cerebral blood flow after a stroke leads to the death of nerve cells and loss of brain tissue. The most commonly used animal model for studying stroke is the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Previous research studies have reported different infarct sizes even when the same experimental animal species was used under similar MCAO conditions. Therefore, we developed an improved experimental method to address this discrepancy. Mice were subjected to MCAO using a filament as the occlusion material to mimic human stroke conditions and filament thickness was optimized to establish more reproducible infarction volume. Mice treated with a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome (GRex) following stroke induction showed a significantly decreased total infarction volume and increased number of surviving cells relative to the untreated control group. This modified experimental protocol successfully and reproducibly demonstrated the beneficial effect of GRex on ischemic stroke.

Brain damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion of cerebral blood flow leads to the death of nerve cells and loss of brain tissue. This type of brain damage continues to increase with the increasing prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases due to the spread of metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus1,2. The absolute number of elderly patients with stroke has dramatically increased worldwide, and the cost of medical care for these patients, who are often left with long-term disabilities, is a major societal burden. Therefore, secondary disabilities should be mitigated as much as po....

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All procedures involving animals were approved by the ethics committee of Pusan National University (approval number, PNU-2016-1087). A graphical overview of this study is shown in Figure 1.

1. Preparation and Administration of GRex

NOTE: The GR used in this study was purchased from a commercial pharmaceutical company.

  1. Place 200 g of GR in 2,000 mL of methanol and incubate at room temperature (25 °C) for 5 days.
  2. <.......

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In the sham-operated normal group, no cerebral infarct is observed whereas in the control group, a relatively wide range of damaged areas is observed. In the mice administered 300 mg/kg GRex in the MCAO model group, a statistically significant reduction in damaged area is observed (Figure 2).

The histological changes are investigated by staining ischemic brain sections with H&E or cresyl violet........

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With the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases such as chronic hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, which are major risk factors for stroke, stroke prevention and treatment have become an important area of medical research12,13. Deficits in language and movement after a stroke are strongly correlated with the degree of damage to brain tissue14 and result in a poor quality of life for patients and their families

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Not applicable.

....

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Gwangmyoung Pharmaceuticals Co., Korea Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma
Qualitative filter paper Advantec Filter paper No. 2 Qualitative filter paper
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) Sigma D8418-250ML Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
Syringe filter (0.45 µm) Sigma CLS431220 Syringe filter (0.45 µm)
Stereo Microscope Leica M50 Stereo Microscope
Stereo Microscope Nikon SMZ745 Stereo Microscope
Laser Doppler Moor Instrument moorVMS-LDF Laser Doppler
Anesthesia Tabletop Bracket with N2O&O2 Flowmeter System Harvard Appratus 34-1352 Anesthesia Tabletop Bracket with N2O&O2 Flowmeter System
Homeothermic Monitoring System Harvard Appratus 55-7020 Homeothermic Monitoring System
Digital Camera Canon Eos-M2 Digital Camera
Cryostat Leica CM3050S Cryostat
Microscope Carl Zeiss Zeiss Axio Microscope
Data Analysis Systat Software Inc. SigmaPlot version 12 Data Analysis
Data Analysis NIH Image ImageJ Data Analysis
Mouse diet Doo Yeol Biotech Standard rodent chow Mouse diet
Isoflurane JOONGWAE A02104781 Isoflurane
Isoflurane TROIKAA ISOTROY 100 Isoflurane
Silk suture (4-0 Black silk)  AILEE SK47510 Silk suture (4-0 Black silk) 
Silk suture (3-0 White silk)  Baekjae 57 Silk suture (3-0 White silk) 
Nylon suture (8-0 monofilament)  AILEE NB825 Nylon suture (8-0 monofilament) 
2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) Sigma T8877-25G 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)
Formalin (Formaldehyde solution) JUNSEI 69360-1263 20KG Formalin (Formaldehyde solution)
Hematoxylin (Harris Hematoxylin) YD Diagnostics EasyStain Hematoxylin (Harris Hematoxylin)
Eosin (1% Eosin Y Solution) MUTO PURE CHEMICALS 3200-2 Eosin (1% Eosin Y Solution)
Cresyl violet (acetate) Sigma C5042-10G Cresyl violet (acetate)
Paraformaldehyde  Sigma-Aldrich P6148-1KG Paraformaldehyde 
Sucrose JUNSEI 31365-0350 1KG Sucrose
Optimum cutting temperature (OCT) compound Scigen 4583 Optimum cutting temperature (OCT) compound
Disecting Knife Fine Science Tools 10055-12 Disecting Knife
#4 Forcep Fine Science Tools 11241-30 #4 Forcep
#5 Forcep Fine Science Tools 11254-20 #5 Forcep
#6 Forcep Fine Science Tools 11260-20 #6 Forcep
#7 Fine Forcep Fine Science Tools 11274-20 #7 Fine Forcep
Surgical Scissors Fine Science Tools 14001-12 Surgical Scissors
Extra Fine Bonn Scissors Fine Science Tools 14084-08 Extra Fine Bonn Scissors
Moria Pascheff-Wolff Spring Scissors Fine Science Tools 15371-92 Moria Pascheff-Wolff Spring Scissors
Vessel Dilating Forcep Fine Science Tools 18153-11 Vessel Dilating Forcep

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