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Developmental Biology

Examining Muscle Regeneration in Zebrafish Models of Muscle Disease

Published: January 18th, 2021

DOI:

10.3791/62071

1Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University

Skeletal muscle regeneration is driven by tissue resident muscle stem cells, which are impaired in many muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, and this results in the inability of muscle to regenerate. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the examination of muscle regeneration in zebrafish models of muscle disease.

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate following injury, which is driven by obligate tissue resident muscle stem cells. Following injury, the muscle stem cell is activated and undergoes cell proliferation to generate a pool of myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate to form new muscle fibers. In many muscle wasting conditions, including muscular dystrophy and ageing, this process is impaired resulting in the inability of muscle to regenerate. The process of muscle regeneration in zebrafish is highly conserved with mammalian systems providing an excellent system to study muscle stem cell function and regeneration, in muscle wasting conditions such as muscular dystrophy. Here, we present a method to examine muscle regeneration in zebrafish models of muscle disease. The first step involves the use of a genotyping platform that allows the determination of the genotype of the larvae prior to eliciting an injury. Having determined the genotype, the muscle is injured using a needle stab, following which polarizing light microscopy is used to determine the extent of muscle regeneration. We therefore provide a high throughput pipeline which allows the examination of muscle regeneration in zebrafish models of muscle disease.

Skeletal muscle accounts for 30-50% of human body mass, and is not only indispensable for locomotion, but it also serves as a critical metabolic and storage organ1. Despite being postmitotic, skeletal muscle is highly dynamic and retains a tremendous regenerative capacity following injury. This is attributed to the presence of tissue resident stem cells (also called satellite cells), located under the basal lamina of myofibers and marked by the transcription factors paired box protein 7 (pax7) and/or paired box protein 3 (pax3), among others2,3. Follo....

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Zebrafish maintenance was carried out as per the standard operating procedures approved by the Monash University Animal Ethics Committee under breeding colony license ERM14481.

1. Determination of the genotype of live embryos using an embryo genotyping platform.

  1. Anesthetize 3 days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish embryos by adding tricaine methanesulfonate to a final concentration of 0.016% (v/v) in embryo medium (5 mM NaCl, 0.17mM KCl, 0.33 mM CaCl2, 0.33 mM MgSO.......

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The ability to quantify birefringence of skeletal muscle provides a non-invasive but highly reproducible method to examine and compare levels of muscle damage, and examine muscle regeneration in vivo. Birefringence results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres15, and following injury or damage to the muscle, a reduction in birefringence is evident. Likewise, the activation and differentiation .......

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Skeletal muscle regeneration is driven by obligate tissue resident muscle stem cells, whose function is altered in many muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, subsequently impeding the process of muscle regeneration. Here, we describe a high throughput protocol to examine muscle regeneration in live zebrafish models of muscle disease. The first step of the pipeline utilizes a embryo genotyping platform14, which is a user-friendly and accurate method to determine the genotype of live larvae, b.......

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We would like to thank Dr. Alex Fulcher, and Monash Micro Imaging for assistance with microscope maintenance and setup. The Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute is supported by grants from the State Government of Victoria and the Australian Government. This work was funded by a Muscular Dystrophy Association (USA) project grant to P.D.C (628882).

....

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Name Company Catalog Number Comments
24 well plates Thermo Fischer 142475
30 gauge needles Terumo NN-3013R
90 mm Petri Dishes Pacific Laboratory Products PT S9014S20
DNA extraction chips wFluidx ZEG chips
Embryo genotyping platform wFluidx ZEG base unit Zebrafish Embryo Genotyper
Glass pipette Hirschmann 9260101
Glass plate dish WPI FD35-100 Commonly referred to as FluoroDish
Incubator Thermoline Scientific TEI-43L
Plastic pipette Livingstone PTP03-01
Polarizing microscope Abrio N/A

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